CALT A-100

     Notes: The A-100 is a derivative of the WS-1, designed to replace the WS-1 and supplement the WS-1B.  The A-100 is a GMLRS, firing guided or unguided rockets.  The A-100 is further a derivative of the Russian Smerch 9K58 launcher, but using a Chinese truck chassis instead of a Russian truck chassis. CALT (China Academy of Launch Vehicle technology), is a design bureau more associated with spacecraft boosters and ballistic missiles; this is their attempt to break into the military rocket market, and it seems to be successful so far, as the PLA seems to be impressed with the system. Other users include Pakistan and Tanzania. (It should be noted that the A-100 turned out very different from its Russian counterpart; for example, Smerch rockets will not fit into an A-100 launcher, despite being the same caliber.) These vehicles are assigned at Division, Corps, and Army levels and are expected to have a lot of speed, and they donít.

 

A-100

     The rockets and missiles fired from the A-100 are 300mm, and launch anything from conventional warheads with a variety of warheads to the PLAís preferred rounds, missiles with several types of warheads. (Reportedly, the PLAís favorite warhead for the A-100 is a SADARM-type warhead.)  The launcher has ten tubes (though early development designs used only six tubes); the launchers are arranged with four tubes on top, and six on the bottom row.  The guided version uses a simple motion detector with a computer that corrects for drift.  This computer also triggers warheads such as DPICM and SADARM to that they detonate at the optimum altitude to achieve the best spread.

     The chassis of the launch vehicle is based on the Taiían TAS5380 8x8 heavy truck.  The TAS5380 was designed specifically to carry and act as a TEL for large missiles and rockets.  The engine is a Deutz turbocharged diesel with 517 horsepower, and coupled to automatic transmission.  The chassis has a central tire pressure system and puncture-resistant run-flat tires.  The cab has air conditioning, heating, and is NBC-Sealed. Behind the cab is a sealed section for the vehicleís electronics, radios, land navigation system, and vehicle state system.  The cab is designed for five people, but has a crew of only three, so there is a decent amount of room, even with the gunnerís fire control equipment, for personal equipment and even a 30-liter drinking water tank.

 

A-100E

     This is a version with modifications specifically for Pakistan.  It is built in Pakistan under license and most of the modifications are to suit local manufacturing methods.  It uses a truck similar to the TAS5380, the TAS4500; the main difference is that the TAS4500 is a newer design.  The Pakistanis acquired the A-100E specifically to counter Indiaís purchase of the 9A52-2T Smerch.  The A-100E has a slightly upgraded guidance system, and the on-missile computer is tweaked to reflect the Pakistani Armyís preference for a lower burst altitude for DPICM and SADARM warheads.

 

A-200

     This fs for the most part the same as the A-100, but uses inertial positioning as its main guidance, with updates on position done by GPS several times during flight.  The fire control equipment is updated with a GPS receiver to give the missiles an initial fix.  The missiles are also differently positioned on the launcher; there are three missiles on the top and bottom, with two in between.  The missiles used with the A-200 are further modified with forward control surfaces that are not present on A-100 rockets.  This system is available on the arms market, but has had no takers as of yet.

 

A-300

      The A-300 uses simultaneous GPS and inertial guidance, making it very accurate.  It also has an extended range of 290 kilometers, as opposed to the 100 kilometers of other versions. Fire control is appropriately modified. It is otherwise the same as the A-200.

 

AR1A

     This launcher system was developed from the A-100 when the PLA chose not to use that vehicle.  The PLA, unfortunately, also chose to pass on the AR1A; however, Armenia is reportedly using the AR1A.  The TEL is loaded with two 5-round sections, each of which has two rockets on the top and bottom and one in the middle. Itís are long range for MLRS rockets, having a range of 130 kilometers.  The TEL is based on a Wanshan WS2400, which, despite being about a meter longer, is about the same design and same engine power as the other launchers in this series.

 

AR3

     Perhaps one of the most powerful GMLRSs in the world, the AR3 fires 370mm guided missiles as a primary munition, though it can also mount the AR1Aís rocket pack.  The missiles are guided by inertial navigation with GPS updates.  The AR3 uses the same TEL as the AR1A.

 

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological*

A-100

$911,150

D, A

710 kg

43 tons

3

32

2nd Gen FLIR, 2nd Gen Image Intensification (G), 2xCCD Cameras (G, C)

Shielded

A-100E

$921,150

D, A

735 kg

43 tons

3

32

2nd Gen FLIR, 2nd Gen Image Intensification (G), 2xCCD Cameras (G, C)

Shielded

A-200

$934,483

D, A

735 kg

42 tons

3

33

2nd Gen FLIR, 2nd Gen Image Intensification (G), 2xCCD Cameras (G, C)

Shielded

A-300

$987,817

D, A

740 kg

42 tons

3

33

2nd Gen FLIR, 2nd Gen Image Intensification (G), 2xCCD Cameras (G, C)

Shielded

AR1A

$828,350

D, A

750 kg

43.5 tons

4

34

FLIR, Image Intensification (G), 2xCCD Cameras

Shielded

AR3

$1,244,453

D, A

788 kg

44 tons

4

37

2nd Gen FLIR, 2nd Gen Image Intensification (G), 2xCCD Cameras (G, C)

Shielded

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

A-100/100E

110/55

30/15

825

196

Stnd

W(5)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2  HS2  HR2

A-200/300

112/56

31/16

825

196

Stnd

W(5)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2  HS2  HR2

AR1A

109/55

30/15

825

196

Stnd

W(5)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2  HS2  HR2

AR3

109/55

30/15

825

196

Stnd

W(5)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2  HS2  HR2

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

A-100

+2

None

10-round 300mm Missile Launcher

10x300mm Missiles

A-100E

+2

None

10-round 300mm Missile Launcher

10x300mm Missiles

A-200

+3

None

8-round 300mm Missile Launcher

8x300mm Missiles

A-300

+4

None

8-round 300mm Missile Launcher

8x300mm LR Missiles

AR1A

+2

None

10-round 300mm Rocket Launcher

10x300mm LR Rockets

AR3

+4

None

8-round 370mm Missile Launcher

8x370mm Missiles

 

Norinco Type 70 MRL

     Notes:  This is the same rocket launcher as mounted on the Type 82 130mm MRL, this time mounted on the chassis of a YW531 APC (Type 63) on an electrically-powered turret.  The passenger area of the YW-531 is taken up with the turret for the MRL, fire control equipment, communications gear, an extra rocket pack, and the crew. The driver is on the front left; he has a night vision block for his position, but this does not give him a wide field of view.  The Type 70 MRL is believed to have been replaced by an MRL based on the Type 89 APC, but the Type 70s are still in reserve duties.

     The chassis otherwise remains similar to the YW531, with four roadwheels per side, a drive sprocket, and an idler wheel at the rear.  Engine is the same KHD BF8L 413F with 320 horsepower and manual transmission.

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

$131,339

D, A

500 kg

14 tons

6

12

Passive IR (D)

Enclosed

 

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

159/111

44/31/4

450

95

Trtd

T4

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF3  HS2  HR2

 

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

None

None

19-round 130mm Multiple Rocket Launcher, DShK (C)

38x130mm Rockets, 600x12.7mm

 

Nanjing Type 81 107mm MRL

     Notes:  In the early 1970s, China developed a towed 107mm MRL for export for use by light mobile forces, designed to be towed by a light vehicle and in general very light in weight and size. The Type 81 uses this MRL, the Type 63, mounted on the back of a Nanjing NJ-230 4x4 light truck, with a manual transmission and a 120-horsepower engine.  The truck chassis is mostly unmodified from the standard truck, and simply has the MRL mounted on a manually-turning pedestal with stops to lock the MRL down when firing position is reached, and only the most rudimentary of aiming mechanisms.  Because of the inaccuracy of a barrage fired by the Type 81, all scatter distances double.  The cab is enlarged for the crew, but firing mechanisms consist of simply a few switches and safeties.  About half of the cargo area is taken up with the MRL, but there is an area available for crew equipment, spare tire, and tools.  Many Type 81s are further modified with a metal or wood box on the front bumper and hood for carrying extra rounds.  This MRL is often mistakenly referred to as the Type 63 MRL, though the Type 63 designation actually only applies to the MRL and not the entire system. Though the Type 81 is not used by the PLA, it is used Iran (where it is known as the Haseb), Sudan (called the Taka), South Africa (called the RO 107), and on the North Korean VTT-323 armored vehicle chassis.

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

$49,661

G, A

400 kg

3.71 tons

4

4

Headlights

Open

 

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

232/117

65/33

105

53

Trtd

W(2)

TF1  TS1  TR1  HF1  HS1  HR1

 

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

None

None

12-round 107mm Rocket Launcher

24x107mm Rockets

 

Norinco Type 81 122mm MRL

     Notes: This variant of the Soviet BM-21 Grad SPMRL is produced primarily for the PLA.  In fact, many ďBM-21sĒ spotted worldwide are in fact Type 81s, most notably those used by Vietnam in their invasion of the South. The Type 81 is mounted on the rear of a Shaanxi SX250, which is a modified version of the Hanyang CQ260 6x6 heavy truck chassis (which is itself a modified form of the French Berliet GBU 15).  This chassis has a 320-horsepower engine and a manual transmission. The rockets are on a turntable on the rear of the truck chassis and can be traversed left 70 degrees and right 180  degrees, with a depression of 0 degrees and an elevation of +55 degrees..  The vehicle is capable of acting as its own FDC, but medium and long-range scatter is doubled, despite a simple ballistic computer and inertial navigation. The truck has an enlarged, lightly-armored cab primarily meant to insulate the crew from the exhaust of the rockets. The MRL may be fired in manual (1 shot at a time), semiautomatic (20-round ripple) or automatic (40-round full ripple) modes. The enlarged cab contains positions for the driver, commander, gunner, and assistant gunner; a further three crewmembers, who are loaders, are carried on an accompanying truck. The MRL fills almost the entire cargo area, except for a small space behind the cab for a spare tire, a seat for part of the crew, and crew equipment.  This system was replaced in production by the Type 90 MRL, but remains in service with many Chinese units.

     A variant, the SR-4 uses two pods of 20 instead of a single pod of 40.  It is otherwise, for game purposes, the same as the Type 81, except that the SR-4 may be fired with only one pod in place.

     The Type 83 MRL is a variant of this launcher carrying four rows of six rockets instead of four rows of ten, mounted on a smaller DongFeng  CA-30 truck.  Though it was primarily designed for export, the PLA has discovered that the lighter vehicle is useful in light motorized units.  The CA-30 base chassis is much lighter than that of the Type 81, and develops only 96 horsepower, coupled to a manual transmission.  The cab is lightly armored, more to protect the crew against the rocket exhaust than anything else. The cab is not enlarged, but there is room for only three in it; the rest of the room is taken up by a space for personal gear and the fire control board and electronics.  (Another three crew members ride on the trucks that carry reload rockets.)  The rear area of the chassis carries the launcher (which takes up most of the room), a spare tire, and some tools and other ancillary items.  The Type 83 has a primary role in the PLA of sowing minefields from FASCAM rounds, but it is perfectly capable of firing other 122mm rounds.

     The Type 90 is the same launcher mounted on a Tiema SC2030 6x6 truck chassis. This chassis is longer and wider and is able to carry an additional rocket pack in front of the mounted pack, along with a light crane to lift the expended pack off and the fresh pack onto the pedestal.  Three people, however, are required for this operation. Reloading takes 3 minutes. The truck has an engine rated at 322 horsepower, with an automatic transmission.  The cab is lightly-armored, NBC sealed, and has a air conditioning unit on the roof of the cab which is NBC filtered. The cab is enlarged to give room for the fire control equipment, radios, and a space for personal gear. Fire control computers are digital, and as the Type 90 has the capability to depress to zero degrees, a laser rangefinder is available for direct-fire shots.  Normal firing is done with inertial navigation and a mapping module, along with a small computer module with maps of the potential battle area (and this module is able to be updated). The vehicle has automatic laying and reloading systems that allow the MRL to fire accurately without the assistance of an FDC if the target location is known.  The actual crew of the vehicle is six, but the other three crewmembers (usually loaders) ride in resupply vehicles.

     The Type 90A is an upgrade of the Type 90, particularly in the chassis, which is a Tienna XC2200 truck with a 350-horsepower engine, automatic transmission, an automatic fire detection and suppression system for the engine and transmission, and run-flat, puncture-resistant tires.  In addition, the fire control suite is updated, with better computers and equipment, in addition to the inertial navigation and mapping suite of the Type 90.  A group of up to six Type 90As may be controlled from one location by way of wires.  This also allows a command vehicle in a battery to control the entire battery.  On the roof of the cab is telescopic observation equipment and night vision gear, on a swivel mount.

     The Type 90B is an upgrade of the Type 90A; the launcher is mounted on a somewhat larger, somewhat more powerful Beifang Benchi 2629 6x6 heavy truck.  As with other MRLs of this series, the cab is enlarged and lightly armored, and has an NBC overpressure system and an NBC-filtered air conditioning system, as well as a small mast with visual augmentations. The chassis has automatic transmission, an ignition pre-heater, and a 377-horsepower turbocharged diesel engine.  The 6x6 suspension has puncture-resistant and run-flat tires. The primary update in the Type 90B system is actually in the accompanying vehicles, which include several more Beifang trucks for ammo resupply and other gear, a pair of WZ551 reconnaissance vehicles to check out potential firing sites, and a command vehicle with improved command and fire control systems.

     The PR50 is the latest operational version of the series, with new rocket pods containing 50 rounds, five rows of ten.  The operating cost and maintenance cycle is less than the Type 90B.  The PR50 is capable of firing several types of long-range rockets with ranges of up to 50 kilometers.  The Chinese name of the PR50 is Sha Chen Bao, which means Sandstorm. The chassis is, again, slightly larger; though still a 6x6 heavy truck, it is somewhat larger and more powerful at 392 horsepower.  The PS50 retains the inertial navigation as a backup, but itís primary locational tool is GPS.  It also has self-surveying capability.

     The SR-5, introduced at the 2012 Eurosatory but not yet in service, is an unusual variant that has one pod of 122mm rockets and one pod of 220mm rockets.  The SR-5 is fully computerized and includes a vehicle state computer in addition to the electronics listed above for earlier variants. The electronics are modular and can be replaced by more advanced designs in the future. The SR-5 has an advanced fire control suite.  The crane of the SR-5 can lift pods from the ground or trucks and mount them on the pedestal without intervention from the crew in the cab or loaders (though in practice, two loaders insure that proper mating takes place). The same fire control panel and system controls both the 122mm rockets and the 220mm rockets.  The chassis is a Taian heavy 6x6 truck, with the turbocharged diesel engine providing 517 horsepower.  The rocket pods are similar to two HIMARS pods side-by-side. The 220mm rocket pod may be replaced with one carrying a C-705 antiship missile, or one King Dragon 300 missile (similar to the US ATACMS missile). Rocket pods are factory-loaded and sealed.  Due to the possibility of firing missiles, and the increased electronics, the cab is greatly enlarged and carries a crew of five.  Other enhanced features are as other vehicles of this series.

     The SR-7 is a light form of the SR-5, with a launcher for only one rocket or missile pod.  The chassis platform is the same as the SR-5, and the electronics are the same.  The launcher can mount one pod of 20 122mm rockets, six 220mm rockets, one C-705 missile, or one King Dragon 300 missile.  Itís primary advantage is the increased mobility.

  Note that the 220mm rockets fired by the SR-5 and SR-7 MRLs can also fire a variety of biological agents, as well as a 1-kiloton nuclear bomb.  These are not covered on this page.  The SR-5 and SR-7 are also capable of firing guided missile-versions of their rockets, with HE or DPICM warheads.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

Type 81

$188,814

D, A

500 kg

15.2 tons

4

12

Headlights

Enclosed

Type 83

$127,298

G, A

300 kg

8.7 tons

3

8

Headlights

Enclosed

Type 90

$270,138

D, A

434 kg

23.6 tons

3

18

Headlights

Shielded*

Type 90A

$323,190

D, A

437 kg

23.9 tons

3

18

Thermal Imaging, Image Intensification (G)

Shielded*

Type 90B

$323,429

D, A

442 kg

24.3 tons

3

18

Thermal Imaging, Image Intensification (G)

Shielded*

PS50

$400,067

D, A

491 kg

26.73 tons

3

18

Thermal Imaging, Image Intensification (G)

Shielded*

SR-5

$396,142

D, A

454 kg

27.3 tons

5

18

Thermal Imaging, Image Intensification (G)

Shielded*

SR-7

$349,893

D, A

463 kg

25.9 tons

5

17

Thermal Imaging, Image Intensification (G)

Shielded*

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

Type 81

164/83

46/23

400

95

Trtd

W(3)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2 HS2  HR2

Type 83

102/51

28/14

150

42

Trtd

W(2)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2 HS2  HR2

Type 90

118/59

33/17

505

119

Trtd

W(3)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2 HS2  HR2

Type 90A

124/62

34/18

534

129

Trtd

W(4)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2 HS2  HR2

Type 90B

130/66

36/18

580

140

Trtd

W(4)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2 HS2  HR2

PS50

124/62

34/18

596

144

Trtd

W(4)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2 HS2  HR2

SR-5

151/76

42/21

600

191

Trtd

W(4)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2 HS2  HR2

SR-7

159/80

44/23

600

186

Trtd

W(4)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2 HS2  HR2

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

Type 81

+1

None

40-round 122mm Rocket Launcher

40x122mm Rockets

Type 83

+1

None

24-round 122mm Rocket Launcher

24x122mm Rockets

Type 90/90A/90B

+2

None

40-round 122mm Rocket Launcher

80x122mm Rockets

PS50

+2

None

50-round 122mm Rocket Launcher

100x122mm Rockets

SR-5

+3

None

20-round 122mm Rocket Launcher, 6-round 220mm Rocket Launcher

40x122mm Rockets, 12x220mm Rockets

SR-7

+3

None

20-round 122mm Rocket Launcher or 6-round 220mm Rocket Launcher

40x122mm Rockets or 12x220mm Rockets

*These vehicles are Shielded only in the cab.

 

Hanyang Type 82 MRL

     Notes:  The Type 82 is a Chinese-built, 30-tube, 130mm multiple rocket launcher mounted on a modified EQ-2102 6x6 truck for mobility.  It was designed to replace the aging Type 63 130mm MRL, which by the late 1970s was showing its age; in particular, parts for the Type 63 were becoming increasingly harder to get. The Type 82 itself was replaced shortly thereafter with the Type 81 122mm MRL, which had a greater variety of warheads available and better range.  However, some Type 82s are still in service in reserve formations. The Type 82 was normally employed at the divisional level.

     Up to all 30 rockets may be discharged in 15 seconds (three combat rounds).  Reloads are manually loaded into the launcher tubes, but the Type 82 itself also carries 30 reloads in an armored box on front deck, and there are usually further reloads carried in additional following trucks. The tubes are arranged in three rows of ten.  The cab is greatly extended and carries the driver, commander, firing crew, and four reloading crew.

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

$213,299

D, A

306 kg

7.5 tons

8

8

Headlights

Open

 

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

165/83

46/23

400

47

Stnd

W(3)

HF1  HS1  HR1

 

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

None

None

30-round 130mm Rocket Launcher

60x130mm rockets

 

Type 83 273mm MRL

     Notes: Also known as the WM-40, the Type 83 is a multiple rocket launcher based on a Type 60-1 tracked prime mover, with an engine developing 300 horsepower. The MRL is designed to conduct massive bombardment of enemy positions, but the rockets and available warheads leave the Type 83ís rockets unable to completely fulfill this role, though the sheer blast from such large-caliber rockets are bound to cause great damage. As a result of this and itís unspectacular off-road performance, the Type 83 was withdrawn from service in 1988, replaced by 122mm systems. The load area in this variant is completely taken up with the rocket launch box and associated equipment, leaving only the cab for the crew.  The cab has the driver, commander, gunner, assistant gunner, and navigator, as the vehicle is equipped with inertial navigation, self-surveying capability, digital fire control, and the ability to plot its own firing coordinates if the target location is known. The launcher has a depression limit of +5.5 degrees and an elevation limit of +56 degrees, but the turntable allows deflection of only 10 degrees in either direction from the front. The chassis has a somewhat-armored cab, with shutters which can be closed (normally done when firing). The DShK commander's machinegun of the Type 60-1 prime mover is retained.  When the MRL is fired, two stabilizers are lowered at the rear of the vehicle.  This system was used only by China.

     An alternate use of the Type 83 was to launch target drones to simulate UAVs and low-flying aircraft in exercises where SHORAD systems are conducting live fire.  Further development of the Type 83 led to the WM-80 MRL, which came into service in the 1990s.

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

$357,118

D, A

500 kg

15.13 tons

5

12

Headlights

Enclosed

 

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

141/99

39/27

375

111

Trtd

T2

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2  HS2  HR2

 

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

+1

None

4-round 273mm Rocket Launcher, DShK (C)

4x273mm rockets, 500x12.7mm

 

Type 85 MRL

     Notes:  Also known as the YW306, this is the same multiple rocket launcher as the Type 82 MRL, this time mounted on a Type 85 APC chassis.  In this role, the Type 85 does not carry passengers, instead carrying additional communications and fire control equipment, allowing the MRL to operate without an FDC.  The turret is removed and replaced with one mounting the MRL.  The Type 85 APC chassis is a large vehicle, allowing for lots of room for crew, fire control computers and other FC equipment, inertial navigation with mapping modules, extra radios, ammunition for the commanderís machinegun, and creature comforts such as NBC Overpressure with vehicular backup, filtered AC, and a 30-liter drinking-water tank.

     Though the Type 85 MRL has a slightly lowered rear deck where the rocket launcher is mounted, it is otherwise like the Type 85 APC.  Suspension is by torsions bars connecting the roadwheels, and the engine outputs 320 horsepower from a Deutz BF8L 412F 320 horsepower engine coupled to a semiautomatic transmission.

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

$180,330

D, A

500 kg

14.5 tons

6

12

Active/Passive IR (D)

Shielded

 

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

154/108

43/20/4

400

111

Trtd

T4

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF4  HS2  HR2

 

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

None

None

30-round 130mm Rocket Launcher, DShK (C)

60x130mm Rockets, 1120x12.7mm

 

Type 89 MRL

     Notes:  This is a large-capacity multiple rocket launcher on the same chassis as the Type 83 gun/howitzer.  The turret is removed and replaced with the MRL and associated equipment and an extra rocket pack and elevation and reloading equipment to reload the MRL.  (Reloading takes 3 minutes and does not require the crew to leave the armor envelope of the hull.) The rocket pack is the same as mounted on the Type 81 MRL, and there is an additional rocket pack carried on the front deck.  The driver sits up front on the left, the commander is to the right of the extra rocket pack between it and the active rocket pack, and is armed with a machinegun, and the rest of the crew is in the rear under the rocket launcher.  The crew is protected by NBC Overpressure and has air conditioning. Unlike most heavy MRLs, the Type 89 has full armor protection for the crew; however, the rocket packs themselves are not so armored.  This vehicle has automatic laying and reloading systems that allow the MRL to fire accurately without the assistance of an FDC is the target location is known. The vehicle is powered by a 12V150L turbocharged diesel with an output of 520 horsepower. Most other technical details are the same as the rocket launcher of the Type 81.

     This vehicle is in service only with China.

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

$305,596

D, A

500 kg

30 tons

5

17

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

 

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

141/71

39/20

885

193

Trtd

T4

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF16  HS6  HR6*

 

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

+1

None

40-round 122mm Rocket Launcher

80x122mm Rockets, 1000x12.7mm

*The armor value listed is for the vehicle chassis only.  The active rocket pack has an AV of 2; the stored spare rocket pack has an AV of 4.

 

Type 762 MRL

     Notes:  This MRL is similar to the Type 89 MRL in that they use the same chassis, that of the Type 83 SP howitzer. This Chinese multiple rocket launcher was specifically designed to clear minefields by blast, but can also be used to destroy large troop concentrations and structures.  It consists of a pair of short-ranged 425mm rockets with fuel-air explosive warheads to create overpressure for predetonating minefields, on a tracked, armored chassis.  The typical rocket can clear an area 12x22 meters in size of mines, regardless of type and how many arein the area. The launcher may be depressed to +6 degrees, and elevated to +45 degrees.  Traverse is limited to left or right 10 degrees, and is primarily used to fine-tune firing coordinates. The Type 762 inherits the rear door from Type 83 SPH. Also inherited from the Type 83 is its suspension and its 520-horsepower engine. As it is a vehicle for a very specialized role, fire control equipment  is limited, as it would normally be only in narrowly-confined circumstances. There is a machinegun mount by the commander's hatch and one firing port on each side of the crew compartment.  The interior is NBC-sealed.

     It should be noted that while the Type 762 has decent cross-country mobility, it is also vulnerable to side slopes, since the rockets may be depressed only so far and this makes the Type 762 a bit top-heavy.

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

$1,535,139

D, A

364 kg

27 tons

4

14

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

 

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

153/78

42/22

885

193

Trtd

T4

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF16  HS6  HR6

 

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

None

None

Twin 425mm Rocket Launchers, PKT (C)

2x425mm Rockets, 500x7.62mm

 

WM-80

     Notes: A greatly-updated Type 82 273mm MRL, the chassis used by the WM-80 is the 8x8 Taian TA5380 heavy truck, equipped with automatic transmission and a turbocharged diesel engine developing 517 horsepower. All wheels have shock absorbers and the tires are run-flat and puncture resistant. The cab is enlarged to fit the entire crew, including reloaders, and fire control and navigation equipment.  This cab also has a modicum or armor protection, and has NBC Overpressure and a filtered AC system.  The loaders are only there to ensure a positive lock between the old launcher boxes and new pods then reloading. The second place in front and the assistant gunnerís position is taken up by navigation and fire control equipment; the rear seat has the commander and the two loaders that are part of the crew.  The commander has a hatch above him, but there is no weapon mount around it.  The rockets may be fired singly or ripple-fired.  The launcher is mounted on an electrically-actuated turntable; elevation range is +20 to +60, while traverse (facing front is left or right 20 degrees.  Four stabilizing jacks, one at each corner, are lowered before firing,  Battery control is normally done by an FDC, though in a pinch the WM-80 can provide rough coordinates and act as its own FDC.  To facilitate this, the WM-80 has GPS with an inertial backup, self-surveying capability, and the ability to provide its own coordinates if the target is known and on the maps on the mapping module system.  Note that which such self-generated fire, medium and long-range fire has double scatter.

     The WM-80 has optronic and night vision devices in the launcher.  Reloading a launcher takes 5-8 minutes, depending upon the quality of the crew.  These loaders are not part of the WM-80 crew, and ride in the ammo resupply trucks. It should be noted that a larger variety of warheads are available to the 273mm rockets on the WM-80, and they tend not to be used for minefield breaching anymore, though the FAE warhead is retained.

     The WM-120 is essentially the same vehicle as the WM-80, but the rockets use more advanced propellant, allowing 50% greater range.  This version is used by China and Peru, and is replacing the WM-80s used by Jordan.  Replacing the WM-80 with the WM-120 is easy, as it merely requires an upgrade of the fire control equipment and replacement of the rockets.  The WM-120 rockets also come in guided versions (similar in concept to the US GMLRS), guided by inertial navigation with GPS terminal guidance, and this type of use is included in the new fire control equipment.

     By the time that the WM-80 was ready for service, it was considered obsolete by the PLA, though they are used by Armenia and Jordan. Turkey is considering a purchase, but they have a list of upgrades they want done first. The WM-80 was in Chinese service for only a very short time, replaced with the A-100 MRL, and to an extent by the WM-120.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological*

WM-80

$430,029

D, A

693 kg

34.7 tons

6

26

Image Intensification, FLIR (D)

Shielded

WM-120

$470,079

D, A

686 kg

34.8 tons

6

26

Image Intensification, FLIR (D)

Shielded

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

WM-80

125/63

34/18

770

191

Stnd

W(5)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2  HS2  HR2

WM-120

125/63

34/18

770

192

Stnd

W(5)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2  HS2  HR2

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

WM-80

+2

None

4-Round 273mm Rocket Launcher

4x273mm Rockets

WM-120

+3

None

4-Round 273mm Rocket Launcher

4x273mm LR Rockets

 

CPMIEC WS-1

     Notes: In the late 1990s, the PLA commissioned a new MLRS system, essentially to compete with the US M270 MLRS on the international market and for domestic use. Also known as the M-1, the WS-1 was also meant to bridge the gap between conventional artillery and artillery rocket systems.  The WS-1 would generally have been considered a success for most such projects: it fired huge rockets with large warheads and while range was not stunning, it could still reach 80 kilometers.  However, the PLA was not impressed; the rockets had a minimum range of 20 kilometers (meaning they could not be fired at a target closer than 20 kilometers, the PLA was expecting significantly more range from the rockets, and the launcher could mount only four rockets.  They called an end to the project after only a couple of prototypes were produced, and not even LRIP was undertaken.  The statistics given below are highly conjectural, as detailed statistics for the WS-1 have never been released.

 

The Khaibar-1

     The Khaibar-1 (also known as Khyber-1, M-302, and B-302) was an almost complete clone of the WS-1.  The customer was ostensibly Syria; however, the Syrians had no real interest in acquiring the WS-1 Ė it was essentially a straw purchase for Hezbollah and Hamas, giving them longer-ranged and more powerful rockets with larger warheads to pummel Israel.  The fire control system is somewhat dumbed down, and the base chassis is a Russian-made heavy truck with about the same capabilities as the WS-1, The TEL is also Syrian-designed and meant to require minimal maintenance.  For game purposes, the Khaibar-1 is identical to the WS-1.

 

The WS-1B

     The WS-1B was developed from the ashes of the WS-1 program and is a Chinese large-caliber multiple rocket launcher on a Taian TA5380 8x8 heavy truck chassis.  Known users include the PLA, Turkey (who builds the WS-1B and its rockets under license).and Thailand (who get knock-down versions from China but they are assembled in Thailand). The launch system of the WS-1B may handle launchers of four or eight rounds.  These are large rockets (they have longer propellant section than those of the WS-1). which may use any of several warheads.  The WS-1B may also mount and fire the larger WS-1 rockets. Though the cab is extended, only three operators are required; behind the cab is a large module containing the computers, radios, and electronics for the vehicle.  The base chassis has a flatbed, on which is mounted a turntable to traverse and elevate the rocket launcher.  Included in the electronics are a digital computer that increases accuracy of the rockets. The MRL and association erection equipment completely fills the cargo area, except for a small area behind the cab.  The WS-1B includes a vehicle state computer.

 

T-300 Kasiga

     The T-300 (also known as the TRG-300) is the Turkish version of the WS-1B.  It uses a German MAN 26.372 6x6 chassis as a base; this is not quite as large as the Taian TA5380, but the chassis is heavier than the Taian TA5380 and it uses a 550-horsepower engine with locking differentials and antilock brakes, along with an automatic transmission, antilock and power brakes, and power steering. The cab windows have armored shutters; these are primarily for crew protection from the blast of the rockets than for general protection.  The missiles are the same as those of the WS-1B, and the fire control is a Turkish-designed system, as is the observation system, and most of the Turkish electronics suite duplicates the original Chinese equipment.  However, the T-300 also has a BMS.

 

The WS-2

     This MRL was revealed in 2004 at the Zhuhai Air Show.  It uses purpose-built 400mm rockets, with warheads ranging from conventional to the exotic, from HE and DPICM to a version which launches three UAVs which home in on radar emissions. (Rumors state that the Chinese bought the specifications for the Israeli Harpy UAV to develop their submunition UAVs.)  Officially, the range of the rockets is 200 kilometers, but some sources say itís more like 350 kilometers.  The chassis is the same as that of the WS-1B, but the launcher has box-like launchers for four rockets.

     The WS-2B uses the same firing equipment and truck, but the rockets use different propellant and is able to carry a heavier warhead to the same range.

     The WS-2C is a GMLRS system with GPS-guided missiles, and having a range of 350 kilometers.  If the GPS signal is lost, the missile may guide itself (at a penalty of -2 to hit) using passive homing guidance.  There is no UAV-launching round for the WS-2C.

     The WS-2D is also a GMLRS, but carries a smaller warhead out to 400 kilometers, and does have two UAV-launching rounds Ė the ARM UAVs as above, and SADARM-type UAVs.

 

The WS-3

     Though built on the same truck chassis, the electronics of the launch system are updated, as the WS-3 fires different missiles.  The WS-3 series are GLMRS launchers, and progressive versions of the WS-3 have a bit more tech in their guidance units than previous models in the series, and better propulsion units.  The base WS-3 has six launch boxes each with one 406mm missile.  The missiles are launched in the direction of the target, and then midcourse inertial guidance takes over and guides the missiles to the target.

     The WS-3A uses a combination of inertial guidance with midcourse and terminal update guidance provided by GPS or GLONASS (depending on the buyer).

     The WS-3 series is designed specifically for export and not used by the PLA.

 

     Twilight 2000 Notes: This vehicle was just beginning to be produced before the Twilight War and was in short supply.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological*

WS-1

$571,077

D, A

645 kg

17.2 tons

3

9

Thermal Imaging, Image Intensification (G, D), 2xCCD Cameras

Shielded

WS-1B

$642,815

D, A

500 kg

17.2 tons

3

9

Thermal Imaging, Image Intensification (G, D), 2xCCD Cameras

Shielded

T-300 Kasiga

$673,158

D, A

555 kg

20.1 tons

3

17

FLIR, 2nd Gen Image Intensification (G, C, D), 3xCCD Cameras (G, C)

Shielded

WS-2

$1,779,870

D, A

606 kg

19.35 tons

3

12

FLIR, Image Intensification (G, D), 2xCCD Cameras

Shielded

WS-2B

$1,815,417

D, A

620 kg

19.66 tons

3

12

FLIR, Image Intensification (G, D), 2xCCD Cameras

Shielded

WS-2C

$1,848,750

D, A

622 kg

19.66 tons

3

14

FLIR, Image Intensification (G, D), 2xCCD Cameras

Shielded

WS-2D

$1,878,750

D, A

624 kg

19.66 tons

3

14

FLIR, Image Intensification (G, D), 2xCCD Cameras

Shielded

WS-3

$2,593,174

D, A

498 kg

19.81 tons

3

14

FLIR, Image Intensification (G, D), 2xCCD Cameras

Shielded

WS-3A

$2,596,841

D, A

422 kg

19.81 tons

3

14

FLIR, Image Intensification (G, D), 2xCCD Cameras

Shielded

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

WS-1/1B

220/110

61/30

775

193

Stnd

W(5)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2  HS2  HR2

T-300 Kasiga

203/102

57/29

400

203

Stnd

W(3)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2  HS2  HR2

WS-2

195/100

54/27

775

186

Stnd

W(5)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2  HS2  HR2

WS-2B/2C/2D

193/98

53/28

775

188

Stnd

W(5)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2  HS2  HR2

WS-3/3A

195/98

56/27

775

193

Stnd

W(5)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF2  HS2  HR2

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

WS-1

+2

None

4-Round 320mm Rocket Launcher

4x320mm Rockets

WS-1B/T-300

+2

None

4-Round 302mm Rocket Launcher

4x302mm Rockets

WS-2

+3

None

6-Round 400mm Rocket Launcher

6x400mm Rockets

WS-2B

+3

None

6-Round 400mm Rocket Launcher

6x400mm LR Rockets

WS-2C/2D

+3

None

6-Round 400mm Missile Launcher

6x400mm Missiles

WS-3/3A

+3

None

6-Round 406mm Missile Launcher

6x406mm Missiles