Arzamas BTR-70

     Notes: This improved version of the BTR-60PB was first identified as a separate vehicle type during a parade in Moscow in 1980.  Before that, it was thought to be merely a modified BTR-60.  Unknown to the West, the BTR-70 has been in service with Soviet forces since mid-1972.  It did not have as wide export sales as the BTR-60, but was used by most Warsaw Pact countries, Bangladesh, Iran, Indonesia, Pakistan, Nepal, and Vietnam.  Taliban Afghanistan operated an unknown number of captured BTR-70s, but these were all destroyed in the US invasion in 2002. The PLO is rumored to have a force of 50 of them, and Mexico is rumored to have recently taken delivery of an unknown number of them.  They saw large-scale combat use in Afghanistan with the Soviets and by Taliban forces, and smaller combat use in Chechnya, Georgia, and with IFOR and KFOR. Lesser numbers of the BTR-70 are seen than the BTR-80, as the BTR-80 appeared not long after the BTR-70 and the BTR-80 is a better vehicle.

 

The BTR-70

     The BTR-70 is largely an upgraded and improved BTR-60PB, and the two can easily be mistaken for each other.  The BTR-70 has pronounced exhaust pipes and mufflers on the rear roof of the vehicle. The BTR-70 has one extra firing port on each side of the vehicle (for a total of three in each side).  The nose is somewhat longer, a consequence of both improved armor and a larger trim vane.  The hull on the whole is lower and more stretched than on the BTR-60. Perhaps the most telling difference is the driver’s and commander’s positions; they have vision blocks forwards and to the sides in addition to windows.  The side doors, though still quite small, are now found between the second and third wheels below the center of the vehicle instead of being above the center of the vehicle.  This door position means that troops can exist through them more quickly, though it also means that, due to their small size and the squeezing involved, that troops using them are more likely to be run over by the second wheel.  The preferred method of entry and exit is still through roof hatches (two total), as there is no rear door (the engine is in the back).  The commander and driver are still in the front of the vehicle, with the driver and commander having night vision blocks in their overhead hatches.  The driver has vision blocks to the front and left side, and the commander to the front and right side.  The turret is largely the same as on the BTR-60PB, though with slightly better fire control equipment. The turret controls are still manual. The interior layout is basically similar, but is more cramped due to the larger engines and fuel tanks. The troops inside sit back-to-back, facing out, except for the squad leader, who sits with his back to the turret facing to the rear.

     The BTR-70 is powered by a pair of ZMZ-4905 120-horsepower gasoline engines; these are coupled to the same sort of difficult and complicated manual transmission as on the BTR-60. The transmission has been somewhat improved in reliability, but is still prone to breakdowns. One engine propels the second and fourth axles, and the second engine propels the first and third axles. The dual engine format means that if one engine goes out, the vehicle can still drive at half speed, but causes the driving difficulties as stated.  Suspension is 8x8 and of the off-road-type, and the tires are run-flat and have thicker walls than on the BTR-60. The BTR-70 is fully amphibious with preparation (a trim vane must be erected in front from the driver’s compartment, bilge pumps turned on, and a waterjet turned on when the vehicle is floating; this takes four minutes). Swim speed is reduced from that of the BTR-60; this is due to less freeboard (the BTR-70 sits lower in the water than the BTR-60).  The BTR-70 has a one-piece waterjet cover, rather than the two-piece unit of the BTR-60, and the waterjet is more reliable. The BTR-70 has a collective NBC system for the crew and troops; it also has an overpressure system. The frontal armor has been supplemented with spaced appliqué armor.  The BTR-70 has an automatic fire detection and suppression system.

     In Afghanistan, a common addition to the BTR-70 was a pintle-mounted AGS-17 just forward of the troop compartment, to be fired from troops in the open roof hatches.

     Late BTR-70s have a number of changes to them, including the mounting of the BTR-80’s turret, which allows for much greater elevation and depression.  The trim vane has been further modified to make it more stable when swimming, the section behind the rear wheels has been modified to trap more air when swimming.  A section of the troop compartment on each side has been angled, and these angled edges have firing ports in them to allow better suppressive fire against targets above the vehicle (important in Afghanistan’s mountainous regions).  Brackets have been added for the attachment of external stowage. Firing ports have been added to the sides of the commander’s and driver’s positions.  Other than these changes, this late version of the BTR-70 is the same as the standard BTR-70 for game purposes.

 

Later APC-Type Modifications

     The BTR-70M is as the late-production BTR-70 above, but has the single KamAZ-7403 260-horsepower diesel engine of the BTR-80, and four smoke grenade launchers on each side of the turret. The BTR-70V is the same vehicle, but with an auxiliary fuel tank in the rear.

     In the late 1990s, the Ukrainian firm of KMDB began offering an upgrade package for the BTR-70 featuring a new 300-horsepower UTD-20 turbocharged diesel engine and automatic transmission as well as a larger turret with increased armor protection and a 30mm ZTM-2 autocannon instead of the standard KPV machinegun.  Customers for this upgrade have not been made public, but are rumored to include Ukraine herself as well as Russia. The new engine is more powerful than the two gasoline engines it replaces, as well as offering greater fuel economy; it may also burn kerosene as well as diesel.  The modification may be noticed primarily by the Ingul turret (as noted for the BTR-60D above), which has a raised superstructure on top of the old turret with the autocannon, coaxial machinegun, and ammunition storage.  The turret has electrical traverse instead of being manual.  The commander may use the sights of the turret, using downlinked monitors. Another KMDB modification gives the BTR-70 a semi-overhead weapons system (the Grom turret) armed with a pair of 23mm autocannons instead of the single 30mm autocannon.  This version has downlinked sights and vision equipment, as the gunner is mostly inside the hull of the vehicle. In both cases, the side doors are replaced with two-piece clamshell doors, much easier to get in and out of. Both have four smoke grenade launchers on either side of the turret. Though I have found no official designation for these versions, I have used the designations BTR-70D-1 and BTR-70D-2 below for convenience purposes, though both are called BTR-70D in official literature.

     A Slovakian/Belarusian version of the BTR-70, the Cobra-K, is equipped with a new turret armed with a 2A42 autocannon, coaxial machinegun, and an AT-14 ATGM launcher. Fire control is improved, as is vision equipment. The launcher is reloaded from the troop compartment through the deck hatches.  Four smoke grenade launchers are found on each side of the turret. The engine is the same as that in the BTR-80. The Cobra-K is NBC shielded.

 

Other APC-Type Versions

     The BTR-70K is a simple command version used at lower echelons; these have an additional long-range and medium-range radio, an inertial navigation system, and a 1kW generator.  It has a reduced dismount squad.

     The BTR-70KShM is a command/staff version of the BTR-70.  It has a total of three long-range radios, two medium-range radios, and one short-range radio, as well as a radio teletype machine.  Later versions replace the radio teletype with a ruggedized laptop.  The interior is modified with a map board and map storage as well as office and plotting-type supplies.  It has bows and a tarpaulin cover that may be erected to either side of the vehicle to increase working space. The vehicle has two extendible 10-meter radio masts, a 2kW generator, and extendible shelves and three folding chairs. The turret is retained.  A hand-held thermal imager, image intensifier, and laser rangefinder are carried. The BTR-70 SA-22 is a similar vehicle, used at higher command levels, with a different mix of radios, and has an inertial navigation system. For game purposes, it is otherwise like the BTR-70KShM.

     The BTR-70MS is a signal vehicle with one very long-range (100 km), two long range, and two medium-range radios, a switchboard, 20 field telephones, and a 4kW generator.  It has no turret, and the roof is festooned with antennas.  There are several similar signals vehicles, which differ primarily in the radios carried.

     The BTR-70 SPR-2 is a specialist EW variant; it is designed to help protect units from artillery attack by jamming proximity fuzes on the incoming shells.  Jamming these shells is a task by the operator of the equipment (Difficult: Electronics); success means that the shell detonates 20-70 meters (1D6+1x10) meters above the ground, and scatters an extra 10-60 meters.  Catastrophic Failure has no special effect (other than the jamming being ineffective); Outstanding Success means that the rounds either do not detonate (25% chance) or detonate at double the normal jamming altitude and scatter distance (75% chance).  The SPR-2 has a 4kW generator on the rear of the roof, and has no turret.

     The BTR-70Kh is an NBC reconnaissance version of the BTR-70.  It carries instruments to measure radiation and chemical contamination, as well as better shielding, but no special marking equipment.  It has an extra long-range radio and radio teletype (later replaced by a ruggedized laptop) and carries a number of maps and map-marking equipment.

 

     Twilight 2000 Notes: The BTR-70D-1, BTR-70D-2, and Cobra-K do not exist in the Twilight 2000 timeline.  The BTR-70M and BTR-70V are rare.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

BTR-70

$57,277

G, A

1.2 tons

11.5 tons

3+7

6

Passive IR (D, C)

Enclosed

BTR-70 w/AGS-17

$42,646

G, A

1.2 tons

11.6 tons

3+7

6

Passive IR (D, C)

Enclosed

BTR-70M

$50,698

D, A

1.2 tons

11.5 tons

3+7

6

Passive IR (D, C)

Enclosed

BTR-70V

$50,832

D, A

1.2 tons

11.6 tons

3+7

6

Passive IR (D, C)

Enclosed

BTR-70D-1

$177,777

D, K, A

1.1 tons

13 tons

3+7

8

Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G), Thermal Imaging (G)

Enclosed

BTR-70D-2

$187,960

D, K, A

1.1 tons

13 tons

3+7

8

Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G), Thermal Imaging (G)

Enclosed

BTR-70 Cobra-K

$90,065

D, A

1.2 tons

12.1 tons

3+7

8

Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G)

Shielded

BTR-70K

$67,977

D, A

900 kg

11.7 tons

3+5

9

Passive IR (D, C)

Enclosed

BTR-70KShM

$247,887

D, A

600 kg

11.9 tons

3+4

10

Passive IR (D, C)

Enclosed

BTR-70KShM (Late)

$307,812

D, A

600 kg

11.9 tons

3+4

10

Passive IR (D, C)

Enclosed

BTR-70 SA-22

$257,887

D, A

600 kg

11.9 tons

3+4

10

Passive IR (D, C)

Enclosed

BTR-70 SA-22 (Late)

$317,812

D, A

600 kg

11.9 tons

3+4

10

Passive IR (D, C)

Enclosed

BTR-70MS

$49,341

D, A

600 kg

11.8 tons

4

10

Passive IR (D, C)

Enclosed

BTR-70 SPR-2

$46,976

D, A

600 kg

11.5 tons

4

9

Passive IR (D, C)

Enclosed

BTR-70Kh

$456,677

D, A

600 kg

11.7 tons

4

9

Passive IR (D, C)

Enclosed

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

BTR-70

154/78

36/18/4

350

133

CiH

W(5)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF4  HS3  HR2

BTR-70 w/AGS-17

153/77

36/18/4

350

134

CiH

W(5)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF4  HS3  HR2

BTR-70M

165/83

38/19/4

350

136

CiH

W(5)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF4  HS3  HR2

BTR-70V

163/82

38/19/4

350+175

137

CiH

W(5)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF4  HS3  HR2

BTR-70D-1

169/85

39/20/4

350

126

CiH

W(5)

TF5  TS5  TR5  HF4  HS3  HR2

BTR-70D-2

169/85

39/20/4

350

126

CiH

W(5)

TF4  TS4  TR4  HF4  HS3  HR2

BTR-70 Cobra-K

159/80

37/18/4

350

135

CiH

W(5)

TF4  TS4  TR4  HF4  HS3  HR2

BTR-70K/70Kh

151/76

35/18/4

350

136

CiH

W(5)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF4  HS3  HR2

BTR-70KShM/SA-22

149/76

35/17/4

350

137

CiH

W(5)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF4  HS3  HR2

BTR-70MS

149/76

35/17/4

350

137

Stnd

W(5)

HF4  HS3  HR2

BTR-70 SPR-2

154/78

36/18/4

350

133

Stnd

W(5)

HF4  HS3  HR2

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

BTR-70/70M/70V/70K/70Kh

+1

Basic

KPV, PKT

500x14.5mm, 3000x7.62mm

BTR-70 w/AGS-17

+1

Basic

KPV, PKT, AGS-17

500x14.5mm, 3000x7.62mm, 120x30mm Grenades

BTR-70 With AGS-17

None

None

KPV, PKT, AGS-17

500x14.5mm, 2000x7.62mm, 200x30mm Grenades

BTR-70D-1

+3

Good

30mm 2A72 Autocannon, PKT, up to 4xAT-15 ATGM and/or 4xSA-18 SAM Launchers

300x30mm, 2000x7.62mm, up to 4xAT-14 ATGMs and/or 4xSA-18 SAMs

BTR-70D-2

+3

Good

2x23mm 2A7M Autocannon, PKT, up to 4xAT-15 ATGM and/or 4xSA-18 SAM Launchers

400x23mm, 2000x7.62mm, up to 4xAT-14 ATGMs and/or 4xSA-18 SAMs

BTR-70 Cobra-K

+2

Fair

30mm 2A42 Autocannon, PKT, AT-14 ATGM Launcher

300x30mm, 3000x7.62mm, 4xAT-14 ATGMs

BTR-70KShM

+1

Basic

KPV, PKT

500x14.5mm, 2000x7.62mm

BTR-70MS/SPR-2

None

None

PK

2000x7.62mm

 

Arzamas BTR-80

     Notes:  This was the most common version of the wheeled BTR series by 2010, used in large numbers by Russian forces and widely sold throughout the world to help raise money, and used by countries as diverse as Bangladesh and even South Korea.  Even the new Iraqi Army has ordered the BTR-80UP version. All in all, the BTR-80 is used by some 32 nations, with even Finland ordering two for evaluation (the XA-185 was chosen instead). In addition, the US is believed to have a small number on hand for use by OPFOR training units.  The BTR-80 has a number of improvements over the BTR-70 and differences in design in even its base form, and later modifications have given it even more firepower and utility.  The BTR-80 is a large step forward for the BTR series.  The BTR-80 has been in production since 1986.

 

The Standard BTR-80

     The BTR-80 to a large extent follows the layout of previous BTR designs, but the bullet-resistant windshields and small windows to the sides are even more resistant to gunshots.  The commander and driver have vision blocks to the front and to their respective sides to supplement this, and each have a night vision block.  The driver’s controls are conventional and easy to use.  The turret is stepped up and, based on experiences in Afghanistan, the weapons are capable of very high elevation (almost straight up) and depression of -12 degrees.  The gunner now has night vision equipment as standard.  The new mantlet bulges outwards from the front of the turret, and the turret is a little taller, giving the gunner a better field of view.  Fire control is similar to that of the BTR-70.  The new turret has electric traverse and elevation instead of the manual controls on earlier BTRs. The turret has a cluster of four smoke grenade launchers on either side of the turret. The troop compartment in the rear has a little more room due to the smaller size of the engine compartment, and can carry a larger infantry squad.  The troops have three firing ports in each side, and the gunner and commander have firing ports in their respective sides of their compartment.  The troops’ firing ports angle slightly forward, allowing them to fire more forward and contribute to the overall firepower of the vehicle.  The firing ports are ball mounts derived from the BMP-1 series.  The troops enter and exit through enlarged side hatches, which are clamshell hatches opening upwards and downwards.  There is also a pair of roof hatches.

     The BTR-80 is not simply an improved BTR-70; it is has a new hull which is longer and wider than the BTR-70, and the turret is taller.  The armor is a little heavier, especially in the floor, which is reinforced against mines and the wheels and suspension, which are likewise strengthened.  The front of the vehicle has spaced armor, and the nose is a little longer as a result.  Perhaps the greatest change is in the powerplant; the BTR-80 is powered by a single KamAZ-7403 260-horsepower turbocharged diesel engine, which, though the BTR-80 has a manual transmission, greatly decreases the difficulty of the driver’s task as well as greatly simplifying the transmission and drive train, and increasing reliability. Suspension is 8x8 and of the off-road-type, with run-flat tires. The BTR-80 is amphibious with preparation; when floating, a waterjet at the rear is turned on. The BTR-80 has an NBC overpressure system with collective NBC backup, and radiological shielding. The BTR-80 has a winch in the front with a capacity of 4.5 tons and 60 meters of cable.

     For a short time, production of the BTR-80 outstripped the availability of its engines.  As a result, the BTR-80M was produced, with a DMZ-238M2 240-horsepower diesel engine substituting for the standard engine.  It is likely that all or virtually all BTR-80s have been retrofitted with the standard KamAZ engine in Russia and most First and Second-World countries, though some Third-World nations may still have BTR-80Ms.  Hungary bought about 500 of the BTR-80M version, making them the only large-scale user, but theirs have thermal imager on the roof of the turret, and they are in the process of upgrading the engines of their BTR-80Ms.

 

APC-Type Modifications and Upgrades

     The BTR-80A is the current standard for the Russian Army; all BTR-80s are eventually to be converted to the BTR-80A standard, though since they have 4000 BTR-80s, it may take some time for all of them to be upgraded.  The BTR-80A is equipped with the BPPU turret with extra armor, which has a 2A72 autocannon instead of the KPV machinegun, improved vision equipment, and improved fire control.  A variant of the BTR-80A, the BTR-80S, retains the KPV machinegun, but also keeps the improved vision equipment and fire control of the BTR-80A.  The larger turret enables it to carry more ammunition than the standard BTR-80.

     The BTR-82 is the latest version, with improved armor (primarily through the use of appliqué), thermal imaging for the gunner, gunner’s sights downlinked to the commander, and a 300-horsepower turbocharged diesel engine.  The BTR-82 is equipped with the GLONASS system, the Russian equivalent of the GPS system, and the driver has a screen to allow him to navigate with it, as does the commander.  The BPPU turret is retained (with its greater ammunition storage capacity), but the BTR-82 is armed with the KPV/PKT combination.  This version was first shown at an arms exposition in 2009.  The BTR-82A has the standard BPPU turret with its autocannon instead of KPV machinegun.

     In the KMDB BTR-80D upgrade, the engine is replaced with a UTD-20 turbocharged multifuel 300-horsepower engine. The turret is replaced with an Ingul turret. The Ingul turret is a semi-overhead weapons station armed with an autocannon and coaxial machinegun capable of great elevation (almost straight up) and depression (able to engage enemy troops that are as little as 10 meters from the vehicle). The Ingul turret also has four launchers for AT-14 ATGMs, which are modular and can be replaced by up to four SA-18 SAMs (the missiles on each side of the turret must be replaced in pairs when doing this).  The gun and coax are fully stabilized and equipped with modern fire control equipment, and the gunner has excellent day and night vision sights (which may be accessed by the commander via a downlinked monitor).  The turret also has a cluster of four smoke grenade launchers on each side.  KMDB also offers the more straightforward BTR-80UP version, which is similar to the BTR-80A, equipped with the BPPU turret and an air conditioner, as well as stronger appliqué armor.

     The BTR-80B is a version of the BTR-80 fitted with the Kliver turret.  The Kliver turret is similar to the turret of the BTR-80A, except that there are 4 launchers for the AT-14 Kornet missile and an external AG-17 auto0matic grenade launcher. (This is loaded from the troop hatches to the rear of the turret.) The AG-17 has independent elevation and limited traverse from the turret weapons.  This turns the BTR-80 into an even more viable infantry fighting vehicle than the BTR-80D, and provides a significant upgrade in firepower from a BTR-80 or BTR-80A.  It is otherwise similar to the KMDB BTR-80D in capabilities, but has lesser fire control and vision equipment.

     As an experiment, the turret of the BMD-3M has been mounted on the BTR-80.  This gives the BTR-80 a major increase in firepower, making it more of an MGS than an APC, though it still carries a reduced dismount crew.  The commander is moved into the turret, and the old commander’s position used for ammunition stowage. I have used the designation “BTR-80C” below, though this is not an official designation.

     The Columbian Marines use a version of the BTR-80 called the Caribe which is stock except that it uses an M-2HB instead of the KPV machinegun.

 

Other APC-Type Versions

     The BTR-80K is a platoon/company commander’s vehicle; it has an extra long-range and medium-range radio, and a GLONASS navigation system.  The dismount crew is reduced by one.  It can be distinguished by the extra antennas on top of the hull and turret.  The standard BTR-80 has an observation window in the rear of the turret; the BTR-80K lacks this.  The BTR-80AK is similar, but is based on the BTR-80A.

     The BRDM-3 (not the BRDM-based light combat vehicle; the use of “BRDM-3” for one of those BRDM-base light combat vehicles is incorrect) is based on the BTR-80AK, but is an armored reconnaissance vehicle with better vision devices (including for the commander) and carrying more ammunition.  It is equipped with a GLONASS navigation system with an inertial navigation backup and has two long-range (one data-capable), one medium-range, and one short-range radio, along with a ruggedized laptop computer.  The dismount crew is greatly reduced.

     The BTR-80 PBKM is for use by higher command levels. It has a much higher roofline in the rear of the vehicle, two long-range (one data-capable), two medium-range, and two short-range radios, and the turret is not fitted with a PKT (only the KPV).  In the forward part of the turret is a window with an armored shutter. It is distinguishable by its 5 radio antennas. It has a ruggedized laptop computer. The vehicle has a map board and map storage as well as office and plotting-type supplies.  It has the GLONASS system as well as an inertial navigation backup, and additional vision devices. There are a variety of similar vehicles at use by various command and control elements at different levels or for different roles (particularly FDC and missile command vehicles); they may be regarded as identical to the PBKM in game terms.

     The BTR-80 R-149BMRA is a signals vehicle equipped with a very-long-range (100-kilometer) radio, three long-range radios, two medium-range radios, and one short-range radio.  The very-long-range radio is data-capable, though this is in order to allow command posts to transmit data and the vehicle has no computer or teletype of its own.  It has a switchboard and 20 field telephones, and the required commo wire.  It carries a small- mission-specific computer to help coordinate communications. It carries a selection of spare communications parts, and a 5kW generator atop the rear of the roof.  It has a profusion of antennas, and carries two erectable radio masts.  It often tows a trailer with more communications parts and gear.  The BTR-80 R-439-BK1 is the same, but has a Satcom terminal instead of the very-long-range radio, conceivably allowing it to communicate with any station on the planet.  The BTR-80 R-149BMR is similar to the R-149BMRA, but has a video feeding and communication system allowing command posts to transmit video and have video conferences.  This equipment is in place of two of the long-range radios. There are several other signals vehicle which differ primarily in their mix of radios, such as being able to communicate with aircraft or ships.

     The BTR-80 1V152 is a FIST vehicle which has a larger turret housing a larger array of vision equipment, an extra laser rangefinder, and a laser designator.  It has two extra long-range radios, one of which is data-capable, and the vehicle has a small fire-solutions computer. It has no PKT machinegun.

     The RKhM-4 is an NBC reconnaissance version, with detection and measuring systems for chemical and biological agents and radiation levels.  Detection is automatic and requires no special interaction from the crew; measurement requires vehicle equipment use.  At the rear is a single dual flag dispenser with 80 flags total for hazard marking purposes.  The RKhM-4 has a small computer limited in capability to analysis of data from its measurements and transmitting its findings to higher headquarters.  The RKhM-4 has an extra long-range radio which is data capable.

     The BTR-80 E-351BrM is a mobile power station, carrying a diesel-fired 25kW generator in the rear which takes up most of what would normally be the passenger compartment.

     The BMM, sometimes also called the BMM-80, is an armored ambulance.  There are three versions: The BMM-1 is designed for casualty evacuation and first aid on the battlefield.  It carries up to four stretcher cases, two stretcher cases and four seated patients, or six seated patients, plus a medic.  It has the equivalent of a doctor’s medical bag, 20 personal medical kits, and a selection of splints, burn first-aid kits, bandages, and other such gear.  It has an oxygen administration set, a defibrillator, a small refrigerator for perishable medical supplies, a blanker warmer, and a hot plate.  The BMM-2 is designed as a battalion aid station; equipment is largely the same as for the BMM-1, but it has tent sets on either side of the vehicle to expand working space as well as folding gurneys (on stands, not rolling), and carries only up to two stretcher cases.  The BMM-3 is designed as a mobile field hospital and surgical station; it is similar to the BMM-2, but carries the equivalent of four doctor’s medical bags, the equivalent of 10 personal medical kits, the equivalent of 50 doses of antibiotics, a total anesthetic administration set, surgical medications such as local anesthetic and drugs for spinal blocks, two refrigerators instead of one, and a greater selection of splints and bandages.  Equipment to treat burns and give stitches are also present.  BMMs have no turrets, no armament, and raised rooflines.

 

     Twilight/Merc 2000 Notes: This BTR-80C was so rare in the Twilight War that it was regarded as a mere myth by most NATO and Chinese troops.  The BTR-80M comprises about 25% of the Russian and Warsaw Pact BTR-80 force (except in Hungary, where they comprise all of the BTR-80 force).  The BTR-80D is rare, with about 10% of the Russian (only) BTR-80 force being BTR-80Ds.  The BTR-80A is about half of the Russian BTR-80 total, and about one-quarter of the Warsaw Pact BTR-80 total (except for Hungary); it is rare elsewhere. The BTR-80S comprises less than 5% of the Russian BTR-80 force, and is not found in any other armies. The BTR-80B and BTR-82 are not available in the Twilight 2000 timeline.  The BTR-80A is rare outside of Russian and Pact service, and not used by Western or South American units at all in the Twilight 2000 timeline; they are very rare elsewhere.  In the Twilight 2000 timeline, the Mexicans have about 25 BTR-80Ms.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

BTR-80

$54,553

D, A

2 tons

13.6 tons

3+8

8

Passive IR (D, G, C)

Shielded

BTR-80M

$54,477

D, A

2 tons

13.6 tons

3+8

8

Passive IR (D, G, C)

Shielded

BTR-80A

$72,310

D, A

1.8 tons

14.4 tons

3+8

8

Passive IR (D, C, G), Image Intensification (G)

Shielded

BTR-80S

$62,686

D, A

1.8 tons

14.4 tons

3+8

8

Passive IR (D, C, G), Image Intensification (G)

Shielded

BTR-82

$185,708

D, A

1.5 tons

15.6 tons

3+8

9

Passive IR (D, C, G), Image Intensification (G), Thermal Imaging (G)

Shielded

BTR-82A

$195,332

D, A

1.5 tons

15.6 tons

3+8

9

Passive IR (D, C, G), Image Intensification (G), Thermal Imaging (G)

Shielded

BTR-80D

$185,900

D, K, A

1.6 tons

15.1 tons

3+8

9

Passive IR (D, C, G), Image Intensification (G), Thermal Imaging (G)

Shielded

BTR-80UP

$172,062

D, K, A

1.7 tons

15.8 tons

3+8

9

Passive IR (D, C, G), Image Intensification (G), Thermal Imaging (G)

Shielded

BTR-80B

$86,435

D, A

1.9 tons

14.3 tons

3+8

8

Passive IR (D, C, G), Image Intensification (G)

Shielded

BTR-80C

$345,533

D, A

1.4 tons

16.1 tons

3+4

9

Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G), Thermal Imaging (G)

Shielded

BTR-80 Caribe

$53,452

D, A

2 tons

13.6 tons

3+8

8

Passive IR (D, G, C)

Shielded

BTR-80K

$75,409

D, A

1.5 tons

13.6 tons

3+7

9

Passive IR (D, G, C)

Shielded

BTR-80AK

$93,167

D, A

1.8 tons

14.4 tons

3+7

9

Passive IR (D, C, G), Image Intensification (G)

Shielded

BRDM-3

$210,106

D, A

900 kg

14.5 tons

3+4

9

Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G, C), Thermal Imaging (G)

Shielded

BTR-80 PBKM

$312,634

D, A

900 kg

14.8 tons

3+4

10

Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G, C), Thermal Imaging (G)

Shielded

BTR-80 R-149BMRA

$126,222

D, A

1 ton

13.8 tons

4

10

Passive IR (D, G, C)

Shielded

BTR-80 R-439-BK1

$127,093

D, A

900 kg

13.9 tons

4

10

Passive IR (D, G, C)

Shielded

BTR-80 R-149BMR

$128,153

D, A

900 kg

14 tons

4

10

Passive IR (D, G, C)

Shielded

BTR-80 RKhM-4

$538,247

D, A

900 kg

14 tons

4

10

Passive IR (D, G, C)

Shielded

BTR-80 E-351BrM

$61,543

D, A

750 kg

14.6 tons

4

10

Passive IR (D, G, C)

Shielded

BMM-1

$62,713

D, A

875 kg

14.1 tons

***

9

Passive IR (D, C)

Shielded

BMM-2

$64,100

D, A

825 kg

14.3 tons

***

9

Passive IR (D, C)

Shielded

BMM-3

$73,647

D, A

825 kg

14.3 tons

***

10

Passive IR (D, C)

Shielded

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

BTR-80/BTR-80 Caribe/BTR-80K

145/73

34/17/4

300

136

CiH

W(6)

TF4  TS4  TR4  HF5Sp  HS3  HR3*

BTR-80M

135/69

32/16/4

300

124

CiH

W(6)

TF4  TS4  TR4  HF5Sp  HS3  HR3*

BTR-80A/BTR-80S/BTR-80AK

130/66

30/15/3

300

144

CiH

W(6)

TF4  TS4  TR4  HF5Sp  HS3  HR3*

BTR-82/BTR-82A

147/74

34/17/4

300

156

CiH

W(6)

TF5  TS5  TR5  HF6Sp  HS4  HR3**

BTR-80D

151/74

35/18/4

300

151

CiH

W(6)

TF4  TS4  TR4  HF5Sp  HS3  HR3*

BTR-80UP

145/73

34/17/4

300

158

CiH

W(6)

TF5  TS5  TR5  HF6Sp  HS4  HR3**

BTR-80B

160/81

37/19/4

300

144

CiH

W(6)

TF4  TS4  TR4  HF5Sp  HS3  HR3*

BTR-80C

122/61

29/14/3

300

160

Trtd

W(6)

TF11Sp  TS4Sp  TR4  HF5Sp  HS3  HR3*

BRDM-3

136/69

32/16/4

300

146

CiH

W(6)

TF4  TS4  TR4  HF5Sp  HS3  HR3*

BTR-80 PBKM

133/67

31/16/3

300

148

CiH

W(6)

TF4  TS4  TR4  HF5Sp  HS3  HR3*

BTR-80 R-149BMRA

144/73

34/17/4

300

138

CiH

W(6)

TF4  TS4  TR4  HF5Sp  HS3  HR3*

BTR-80 R-439-BK1

142/72

33/17/4

300

139

CiH

W(6)

TF4  TS4  TR4  HF5Sp  HS3  HR3*

BTR-80 R-149BMR/RKhM-4

141/71

33/16/4

300

140

CiH

W(6)

TF4  TS4  TR4  HF5Sp  HS3  HR3*

BTR-80 E-351BrM

135/68

32/16/4

300

146

CiH

W(6)

TF4  TS4  TR4  HF5Sp  HS3  HR3*

BMM-1

139/70

33/16/4

300

141

Stnd

W(6)

HF5Sp  HS3  HR3*

BMM-2/BMM-3

138/69

32/16/4

300

143

Stnd

W(6)

HF5Sp  HS3  HR3*

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

BTR-80/BTR-80M/BTR-80K/R-149BMRA/R-439-BK1/R-149BMR/RKhM-4/E-351BrM

+1

Basic

KPV, PKT

500x14.5mm, 2000x7.62mm

BTR-80A/BTR-80AK

+2

Fair

30mm 2A72 Autocannon, PKT

350x30mm, 3000x7.62mm

BTR-80S

+2

Fair

KPV, PKT

725x14.5mm, 3000x7.62mm

BTR-82

+3

Good

KPV, PKT

725x14.5mm, 3000x7.62mm

BTR-82A

+3

Good

30mm 2A72 Autocannon, PKT

350x30mm, 3000x7.62mm

BTR-80D

+3

Good

30mm 2A72 Autocannon, PKT, up to 4xAT-15 ATGM and/or 4xSA-18 SAM Launchers

300x30mm, 2000x7.62mm, up to 4xAT-14 ATGMs and/or 4xSA-18 SAMs

BTR-80UP

+3

Good

30mm 2A72 Autocannon, PKT

300x30mm, 2000x7.62mm

BTR-80B

+2

Fair

30mm 2A72 Autocannon, PKT, AGS-17 AGL, 4xAT-14 ATGM Launchers

300x30mm, 2000x7.62mm, 300x30mm Grenades, 4xAT-14 ATGM

BTR-80C

+2

Good

100mm 2A70 Gun, 30mm 2A72 Autocannon, PKT

40x100mm, 6xAT-10 ATGM, 500x30mm, 2000x7.62mm

BTR-80 Caribe

+1

Basic

M-2HB, PKT

575x.50, 2000x7.62mm

BRDM-3

+2

Fair

30mm 2A72 Autocannon, PKT

525x30mm, 4500x7.62mm

BTR-80 PBKM

+1

Basic

KPV

500x14.5mm

*This vehicle has a floor AV of 4Sp.

**This vehicle has a roof AV of 3 and a Floor AV of 5Sp.

***See Notes for Crew and passenger capacity.

 

Arzamas BTR-90

     Notes:  At first glance, this appears to be a modified BTR-80; however, the BTR-90 is more a new vehicle, though many sources consider it an enlarged BTR-80.  Design work began in the early 1990s, and it was first publicly shown in 1994.  It appears that so far no foreign sales have taken place, though some are used in Russia by the MVD, Airborne and Spetsnaz.  The numbers in use, however, are very small, with Russia primarily focusing on the BTR-80; however, some Russian plans call for the BTR-90 to eventually be in use by motorized units as well as the Naval Infantry.  Compared to the BTR-80, the BTR-90 has improved firepower and protection and a much more powerful engine.  The BTR-90’s chassis is suitable for a number of applications, though few have yet been announced or demonstrated.

 

The BTR-90

     The first difference one will notice about the BTR-90 is the nose; it is pointed and looks similar to that of the Canadian LAV-25.  Gone are the windshields and side windows of the driver’s and commander’s compartment; instead, these positions have vision blocks around roof hatches, and in each position, the center block is a day/night block.  The commander is now in the turret, so the former commander’s position is not generally used as a passenger position, though he has no direct connection to the rear troop area; this position is aften taken up by the infantry squad leader.  This passenger position is rather small, as the driver’s position is moved to just off-center of the front.  Like on the other BTRs, the BTR-90 troop compartment is in the center of the vehicle, with the engine at the rear, with full-sized clamshell side hatches and two roof hatches.  The space between the first two axles and the rear two axles is a bit larger, allowing for the enlargement of the side doors.  The troops have three firing ports on each side on each side of the hull; like on the BTR-80, these are angled forward, though they have more traverse and elevation than on the BTR-80. The turret is essentially the same as that on the BMP-2, suitably modified for the new chassis, and equipped with an autocannon, coaxial machinegun, and ATGM launcher on the roof, as well as four smoke grenade launchers on each side of the turret.  Depression is only mediocre at -5 degrees, but elevation is +75 degrees. In addition, the BTR-90 has an externally-mounted AG-17 grenade launcher, reloaded from the rear deck hatches. The turret has hatches for the commander and gunner, with vision blocks around them. The AG-17 has independent elevation and limited independent traverse. Thermal imaging for the gunner is an option found on some BTR-90s; this has no effective weight and costs an additional $30,000. The thermal imaging is useful only for the main weapons and not the AG-17. The commander has auxiliary controls for the main gun and coaxial machinegun, and is the only one who can aim and fire the ATGM.

     The BTR-90 is powered by multi-fuel turbocharged engine developing 510 horsepower.  Though this is much greater than on previous BTRs, much of this is soaked up by the much higher weight of the BTR-90.  Suspension is 8x8 and of the off-road-type, with central tire pressure regulation. The front two axles are steerable, with the driver having power steering and conventional controls.  The wheels have antilock brakes and a limited-slip differential; the wheels are also capable of turning at separate speeds without losing traction as terrain requires. All this gives the BTR off-road mobility almost on par with a tracked vehicle. The BTR-90 is amphibious after only turning on bilge pumps (requiring only the flicking of a switch) and the raising of a trim vane; once the vehicle is floating, a waterjet is turned on.  Preparation takes three minutes. The crew and passengers have an NBC overpressure system with a collective NBC backup, with radiological shielding. The engine starting system is redundant; the primary system is electrical, but a compressed air starting system is also provided. At the front of the vehicle is a winch with a capacity of 7 tons and 60 meters of cable. The BTR-90 has a vehicle-state computer; the computer keeps track and reports on the mechanical state of the vehicle as well as the amount of ammunition on board and the integrity of the sights and mechanical components, as well as the amount of fuel on board.  As stated above, armor is heavier than on the BTR-80, and even more attention is paid to mine protection.

     The BTR-90’s hull has lugs for ERA.  Active protection systems, including the Arena and the Drozd, have been mounted experimentally on the BTR-90.

 

The BTR-90M

     As an experiment and for display at some arms shows (and presumably for export), the BTR-90 has been fitted with the turret of a BMD-3M.  This essentially makes the BTR-90M into a sort of MGS, and the dismount squad is drastically reduced.

 

     Twilight 2000 Notes: The stock BTR-90 is a very rare vehicle, found only in Russian service in the Twilight 2000 timeline.  The other BTR-90 versions are unavailable.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

BTR-90

$105,305

D, G, AvG, A

1.5 tons

20.9 tons

3+9

10

Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G), IR Searchlight (Gun, C)

Shielded

BTR-90M

$352,892

D, G, AvG, A

1 ton

22.6 tons

3+5

12

Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G), Thermal Imaging (G)

Shielded

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

BTR-90

181/97

42/23/4

300

274

Trtd

W(8)

TF11  TS7  TR6  HF8Sp  HS5  HR4*

BTR-90M

167/89

39/21/4

300

296

Trtd

W(8)

TF11Sp  TS4  TR4  HF8Sp  HS5  HR4*

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

BTR-90

+1

Fair

30mm 2A42 Autocannon, PKT, AT-4/AT-5 ATGM Launcher, AG-17 AGL

500x30mm, 2000x7.62mm, 5xAT-4/AT-5 ATGMs, 240x30mm Grenades

BTR-90M

+2

Good

100mm 2A70 Gun, 30mm 2A72 Autocannon, PKT

40x100mm, 6xAT-10 ATGM, 500x30mm, 2000x7.62mm

*Roof AV is 4, and Floor AV is 6Sp.

 

GAZ BTR-40

     Notes:  This is an ancient Russian vehicle used by Afghanistan, Albania, Croatia, Cuba, Laos, North Korea, Mongolia, Vietnam, and several African nations; it has been used by about another 20 nations in its lifetime.  It is a lengthened GAZ-63 chassis with an armored body and an open top, and a slightly more powerful engine to cope with the increased weight.  The BTR-40’s design process began in 1947, but the BTR-40 did not begin service until 1950; by then, it was already obsolete – it was quickly replaced in Soviet and Warsaw Pact service by the BTR-152, then the BTR-50, BTR-60, and other vehicles.  Further, advanced development of the BTR-40 led eventually to the BRDM series.  The BTR-40 has seen combat service in several places in the world, including various brushfire wars in Africa, Vietnam, Yemen, the early Middle Eastern wars, and was even in limited use during the Korean War.

     The driver sits at the front of the vehicle on the left, with the commander on the right.  They have open windows to the front and sides, which may be covered with armored shutters which have vision slits in them. There are two or three firing ports on each side of the troop compartment, and there is a pintle mount behind and between the driver and commander as well as on each side of the troop compartment.  These guns are manned by the troops carried in the rear. The firing ports are mere holes in the armor with armored shutters. A spare wheel is carried on the rear of the hull on the center.  A saw is carried on the left side of the hull.  Some vehicles have a 4.5-ton winch on the front of the hull with 70 meters of cable. The troop compartment is open-topped, and the troops enter and exit by going over the sides; the driver and commander also enter and exit in this manner.  The engine is an 80-horsepower GAZ-40 gasoline engine.  It has a 4x4 suspension, but the BTR-40 is well known for its poor off-road performance. On a hard service, it does have a turning radius of only 7.5 meters.

     The BTR-40V is a BTR-40 with a central tire pressure regulation system.  This unfortunately did little to improve its off-road performance.

     The BTR-40B is a BTR-40V with overhead protection.  Troops mount and dismount through four overhead hatches that open to the sides; these may be locked in the vertical position, and standing fire may be accomplished by firing though the supplied firing ports in them. The BTR-40B has actual windshields in them, and has a collective NBC system installed.  The BTR-40B has a pintle mount on the roof near the front for a weapon, but deletes the side mounts; the pintle mount is usually furnished with a heavier machinegun than those used on the BTR-40.  Troop complement is unfortunately reduced.

     The BTR-40zhd is a BTR-40 designed to run across train rails (adjustable from Russian/Eastern European gauges of the period to Western gauges).  It has no off-road speed, and may not move off the rails.  Its purpose was to scout ahead of trains. Only limited amounts of them were made.  Any BTR-40 could be made into a BTR-40zhd by simply changing the wheels and adding reinforcing struts, and vice versa.

     The BTR-40Kh is an NBC reconnaissance version of the BTR-40B.  The primary on-board equipment is a pair of marking flag dispensers with 80 total flags; measuring and metering of radiological and chemical agents is done via hand-held instruments (included in the price below)

     Some Indonesian BTR-40Bs were modified with a small, manually-operated cube-shaped turret atop the vehicle.  This turret mounted either a machinegun or a 40mm MGL in a flexible mount (I have not been able to determine the exact type; use the Milkor Mk 1 stats until I can).  The hull also has a bank of four smoke grenade launchers on each side, and searchlight on the left side of the hull for the use of the commander.

     The Israelis used a number of captured BTR-40s in the 1950s; these substituted the usual armament with M-1919A4 machineguns.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

BTR-40/Israeli BTR-40

$20,920

G, A

850 kg

5.3 tons

2+8

4

Headlights

Open

BTR-40B

$18,472

G, A

850 kg

5.6 tons

2+6

4

Headlights

Enclosed

BTR-40zhd

$16,736

G, A

850 kg

5.2 tons

2+8

4

Headlights

Open

BTR-40Kh

$238,428

G, A

425 kg

5.5 tons

4

5

Headlights

Enclosed

Indonesian BTR-40B

$16,777

G, A

750 kg

5.8 tons

3+5

4

Headlights

Enclosed

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

BTR-40

160/39

37/9

122

39

Stnd

W(2)

HF3  HS2  HR2*

BTR-40B

152/37

35/9

122

41

Stnd

W(2)

HF3  HS2  HR2

BTR-40zhd

163 (Train Rails Only)

38 (Train Rails Only)

122

31

Stnd

W(2)

HF3  HS2  HR2*

BTR-40Kh

158/39

37/9

122

39

Stnd

W(2)

HF3  HS2  HR2

Indonesian BTR-40B

146/35

34/8

122

43

Stnd

W(2)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF3  HS2  HR2

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

BTR-40/BTR-40zhd

None

None

3xSGMB

1250x7.62mm

BTR-40B/BTR-40Kh

None

None

DShK or KPVT

750x12.7mm or 650x14.5mm

Indonesian BTR-40B

None

None

PKT or 40mm MGL

1250x7.62mm or 240x40mm

Israeli BTR-40

None

None

3xM-1919A4

1250x.30-06

*This version has no roof armor.

 

GAZ BTR-60

     Notes:  This wheeled armored personnel carrier was developed in the late 1950s to replace the BTR-152 series; like the BTR-40 that the BTR-152 replaced, the BTR-152 also proved to be inadequate and obsolete for the role of APC.  By 2010, they are mainly found in the armies of Third World nations, having been replaced in the Russian, Eastern European, and Middle Eastern armies by newer versions of wheeled APCs such as the BTR-70, BTR-80, BTR-90, and the TAB and OT-64 series.  The BTR-60 began its design process in 1957, and was first seen in a parade in 1961.  The BTR-60 was developed virtually in tandem with the BMP-1, though the BMP-1 did not appear in service until several years later.   The design called for several features that were advanced for the time, including an 8x8 suspension, two turnable axles (the front ones), independent suspension for each axle, and an off-road-type suspension with run-flat tires and amphibious capabilities. Throughout the course of its history, the BTR-60 was produced in over 10 versions and used by almost 35 countries.  Though for the most part production stopped in 1976, a special production run of 100 BTR-60PBs was done for Iraq in the 1980s.

     Early versions (the BTR-60P) had an open-topped troop compartment and a pintle-mounted machinegun; a little later, the troop compartment was enclosed and a commander’s hatch with a pintle-mounted weapon was introduced (the BTR-60PA), and soon thereafter the primary version was introduced (the BTR-60PB), which has the now-familiar closed top and turret with a KPV/PKT combination.  On the open-topped BTR-60P, the top could be covered with a tarpaulin. Several specialist versions were built, and later modernizations were produced.  The Romanian TAB-71 is also a modification of the BTR-60, as is the Polish/Czech OT-64.

 

BTR-60

     The driver and commander of the BTR-60 are in the front of the vehicle, behind bullet-resistant windshields that can be covered with armored shutters with vision slits in them on the BTR-60P and BTR-60PA, though the vision slits were replaced with vision blocks on later versions.  The driver and commander also have small bullet-resistant windows to their right and left.  They have hatches over their positions which open to the front; the driver’s hatch has a space for a night vision block, while the commander has an IR searchlight over his position.  On the BTR-60PB and later, the commander also has a night vision block. The troop compartment is in the center of the vehicle, and since the engine is in the rear, the troops must go over the side of the vehicle to enter or exit the vehicle.  (Several steps and hand rails are attached to the sides for this purpose.) This is done either by going straight over the sides on the BTR-60P or though roof hatches on the BTR-60PA or later.  In the BTR-60PB and other turreted versions, the BTR-60 has a dedicated gunner. The turret is almost identical to that on the BRDM-2 (except for the level of armor protection); and is in fact the first iteration of the BRDM-1 turret.  The traverse and elevation are manual, and thus are slower than on newer vehicles.  The turret does not have a hatch.  On the rear deck is a large hatch for the passengers (if closed-topped); this hatch is the primary method of ingress and egress for the passengers and gunner, since the two doors in the hull are very small and best suited for emergency use, loading supplies and ammunition, or as auxiliary firing ports.  There are also two firing ports in each side of the hull on the BTR-60PB and later, and firing ports for the commander and driver in front of their positions were also added.  On the BTR-60PB, another small hatch was added on the right side the hull for the gunner, and a full-sized hatch on the left side of the hull. In the front of the vehicle is a winch with a capacity of 4.5 tons.

     The BTR-60P, PA, and PB were powered by a pair of GAZ-49B 90-horsepower gasoline engines, each developing 90 horsepower.  One engine propels the second and fourth axles, and the second engine propels the first and third axles.  Each engine has its own gear box and clutch, and the driver has a dual manual transmission to contend with, making driving challenging to say the least.  The dual engine format means that if one engine goes out, the vehicle can still drive at half speed, but causes the driving difficulties as stated.  The transmission layout is also quite complicated and prone to breakdown.  The suspension, as stated, is 8x8 and of the off-road-type, and shock absorption is surprisingly effective.  The BTR-60 is fully amphibious with preparation (a trim vane must be erected in front from the driver’s compartment, bilge pumps turned on, and a waterjet turned on when the vehicle is floating; this takes four minutes). On the BTR-60PA and later, a collective NBC system was added.

 

Later APC-Type Modifications

     In Afghanistan, the Soviets experimented with a variety of modifications to the BTR-60, including the addition of a pintle-mounted AGS-17 (for use by troops in the rear) and the use of an early version of the Kliver turret. The second of these had the designation of BTR-60PB-1.

     The BTR-60PZ uses the BTR-70 turret, which has a greater elevation and depression.  Elevation especially is very high. It is otherwise identical to the standard BTR-60PB.

     The Russian Arzamas company has developed an upgrade package for the BTR-60PB called the BTR-60PBM, which includes the installation of a single diesel engine, the same as that found on the BTR-80.  This is a KamAZ-7403 260-horsepower turbocharged diesel engine.  The turret has been replaced by the BPU-1 turret, which has similar weapons but is enlarged and is situated higher on the vehicle, with elevation and depression increased to almost straight up and -12 degrees.  This is the same turret as mounted on the stock BTR-80.  Additional appliqué armor has been installed.  Updated radios and night vision equipment has been installed.  As an alternate turret, a BPPU turret may be installed, which has a 2A72 autocannon instead of the KPV machinegun.

     The Russian Murmteplovoz agency has developed an upgrade package using a turret armed with a 2A42 autocannon and a PKT machinegun, as well as an AGS-17 grenade launcher mounted externally on the right side of the turret with remote control.  This is the MB2 turret, and it is larger than the standard turret.  This turret also has improved fire control and vision devices.  The engines are also replaced with a single YaMAZ-236A diesel developing 196 horsepower. The brakes have also been improved, and are antilock brakes.

     Kharkiv Morozov (KMDB) of the Ukraine’s upgrade includes the replacement of the engines with a single UTD-20 multifuel engine developing 300 horsepower.  (The “K” under Fuel below is for kerosene.) This is the BTR-60D. The turret is replaced with an Ingul turret. The Ingul turret is a semi-overhead weapons station armed with an autocannon and coaxial machinegun capable of great elevation (almost straight up) and depression (able to engage enemy troops that are as little as 10 meters from the vehicle). The Ingul turret also has four launchers for AT-14 ATGMs, which are modular and can be replaced by up to four SA-18 SAMs (the missiles on each side of the turret must be replaced in pairs when doing this).  The gun and coax are fully stabilized and equipped with modern fire control equipment, and the gunner has excellent day and night vision sights (which may be accessed by the commander via a downlinked monitor).  The turret also has a cluster of four smoke grenade launchers on each side.

      The Bulgarian BTR-60PB-MD1 is similar to the BTR-60PB, but replaces the engines with a single Cummins ISB 25.30 250-horsepower turbocharged diesel engine, and adds four smoke grenade launchers on each side of its turret.  The export version, the BTR-60PB-MD2, is the export version which has a KamAZ-7403 260-horsepower turbocharged diesel engine.

 

Specialist APC-Types

     The BTR-60PAK is a minor command variant of the BTR-60PA with two extra radios (one extra long-range, one extra medium range), and two erectable mast antennas carried atop the vehicle. One troop is a radio operator instead of being part of the dismount crew, and the radios also displace one troop.  The BTR-60PBK is similar, but based on the BTR-60PB.

     The BTR-60PU is a turretless version of the BTR-60PB, with a greatly rearranged interior for a command staff and two long-range radios, one medium-range radio, two short-range radios, a radio teletype machine, and a field telephone.  Later versions replace the radio teletype with a ruggedized laptop computer.  The top of the vehicle has a collapsible AZI frame antenna, an extendible 10-meter radio mast, a 2kW generator, and extendible shelves and three folding chairs.  The vehicle has a map board and map storage as well as office and plotting-type supplies.  It has bows and a tarpaulin cover that may be erected to either side of the vehicle to increase working space.  The BTR-60PU is very similar to the BTR-60PA in appearance, except for the extra antennas. This vehicle is also called the BTR-60R-145BM Chaika.    

     The BTR-60R-145BM-1 is a signal vehicle with one very long-range (100 km), two long range, and two medium-range radios, a switchboard, 20 field telephones, and a 4kW generator.  It has no turret, and antennas like those of the BTR-60R-145BM.  There are several similar signals vehicles, which differ primarily in the radios carried.

     The BTR-60Z-351BR is essentially a large armored generator vehicle, carrying internally a 15kW generator and operators for it, as well as a fuel tank.  The fuel tank for the generator is 90 liters. 

 

     Twilight 2000 Notes: The Arzamas and Murmteplovoz upgrades are not available in the Twilight 2000 timeline, nor are the Kharkiv Morozov modification and the BTR-60PB-MD1.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

BTR-60P

$48,302

G, A

1.2 tons

9.1 tons

3+13

6

Passive IR (D)

Open

BTR-60PA

$51,433

G, A

1.2 tons

10 tons

3+11

6

Passive IR (D)

Enclosed

BTR-60PB

$66,738

G, A

1.1 tons

10.3 tons

3+8

6

Passive IR (D)

Enclosed

BTR-60PB w/AGS-17

$67,168

G, A

1 ton

10.3 tons

3+8

6

Passive IR (D, G)

Enclosed

BTR-60PB-1 (Kliver)

$202,935

G, A

1 ton

11 tons

3+8

7

Passive IR (D, G), Image Intensification (G)

Enclosed

BTR-60PM (BPU-1 Turret)

$49,894

D, A

950 kg

11.1 tons

3+8

6

Passive IR (D, G), Image Intensification (G)

Enclosed

BTR-60PM (BPPU Turret)

$69,511

D, A

950 kg

11.1 tons

3+8

6

Passive IR (D, G), Image Intensification (G)

Enclosed

BTR-60PB MB2

$80,211

D, A

1.2 tons

10.8 tons

3+8

6

Passive IR (D, G), Image Intensification (G)

Enclosed

BTR-60D

$180,241

D, K, A

950 kg

12.2 tons

3+8

7

Passive IR (D, G), Image Intensification (G), Thermal Imaging (G)

Enclosed

BTR-60PB-MD1

$46,694

D, A

1.1 tons

10.3 tons

3+8

6

Passive IR (D)

Enclosed

BTR-60PB-MD2

$46,734

D, A

1.1 tons

10.3 tons

3+8

6

Passive IR (D)

Enclosed

BTR-60PAK

$55,883

G, A

900 kg

10.1 tons

4+9

6

Passive IR (D)

Enclosed

BTR-60PBK

$68,313

G, A

850 kg

10.4 tons

4+5

6

Passive IR (D)

Enclosed

BTR-60PU

$61,257

G, A

850 kg

10.5 tons

3+4

7

Passive IR (D)

Enclosed

BTR-60PU (Late)

$97,740

G, A

850 kg

10.5 tons

3+4

8

Passive IR (D)

Enclosed

BTR-60R-145BM-1

$57,918

G, A

850 kg

10.5 tons

4

8

Passive IR (D)

Enclosed

BTR-60Z-351BR

$54,652

G, A

800 kg

10.6 tons

4

7

Passive IR (D)

Enclosed

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

BTR-60P

158/80

37/18/5

290

97

Stnd

W(4)

HF5  HS2  HR2

BTR-60PA

144/73

34/16/4

290

107

Stnd

W(4)

HF5  HS2  HR2

BTR-60PB/PB-1 w/AGS-17

139/70

33/16/4

290

110

CiH

W(4)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF5  HS2  HR2

BTR-60PB-1 (Kliver)

131/66

31/15/4

290

118

CiH

W(4)

TF4  TS4  TR4  HF5  HS2  HR2

BTR-60PM

172/86

40/20/5

290

136

CiH

W(4)

TF3  TS3  TR3  HF7  HS4  HR3

BTR-60PB MB2

137/69

32/16/4

290

99

Trtd

W(4)

TF4  TS4  TR4  HF5  HS2  HR2

BTR-60D

160/81

37/19/5

290

138

CiH

W(4)

TF5  TS5  TR5  HF6  HS3  HR3

BTR-60PB-MD1

174/88

41/20/5

290

130

CiH

W(4)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF5  HS2  HR2

BTR-60PB-MD2

181/91

42/21/5

290

136

CiH

W(4)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF5  HS2  HR2

BTR-60PAK

143/73

34/16/4

290

108

Stnd

W(4)

HF5  HS2  HR2

BTR-60PBK

138/69

33/16/4

290

111

CiH

W(4)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF5  HS2  HR2

BTR-60PU/R-145BM-1

137/69

32/16/4

290

112

Stnd

W(4)

HF5  HS2  HR2

BTR-60Z-351BR

136/69

32/15/4

290

113

Stnd

W(4)

HF5  HS2  HR2

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

BTR-60P/R-145BM/60Z-351BR

None

None

PKT

2000x7.62mm

BTR-60PA/PAK

None

None

DShK

1200x12.7mm

BTR-60PB/MD-1/MD-2/PBK

None

None

KPV, PKT

500x14.5mm, 3000x7.62mm

BTR-60PB w/AGS-17

+1

Basic

KPV, PKT, AGS-17

500x14.5mm, 3000x7.62mm, 120x30mm Grenades

BTR-60PB-1 (Kliver)

+2

Fair

30mm 2A72 Autocannon, PKT, AGS-17 AGL, 4xAT-14 ATGM

300x30mm, 2000x7.62mm, 300x30mm Grenades, 4xAT-14 ATGM

BTR-60PBM (BPU-1 Turret)

+1

Fair

KPV, PKT

500x14.5mm, 3000x7.62mm

BTR-60PBM (BPPU Turret)

+2

Fair

30mm 2A72 Autocannon, PKT

250x30mm, 3000x7.62mm

BTR-60PB MB1

+2

Fair

30mm 2A42 Autocannon, PKT, AG-17

250x30mm, 3000x7.62mm, 200x30mm Grenades

BTR-60D

+3

Good

30mm 2A72 Autocannon, PKT, up to 4xAT-15 ATGM and/or 4xSA-18 SAM Launchers

300x30mm, 2000x7.62mm, up to 4xAT-14 ATGM and/or 4xSA-18 SAMs

BTR-60PU

None

None

KPV

1000x14.5mm

 

KamAZ BPM-97

     Notes: The BPM-97 was designed specifically for the Russian Border Guards, and development began in 1997.  Progress has been slow, however, and the vehicle is only in limited service in an advanced trials phase.  This primarily due to lack of funding – the BPM-97 is essentially ready to go once the money is available to field them in numbers.  Though the Russian Border Guards may not get decent numbers of them anytime soon, the BPM-97 has been ordered by Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan, and they will probably get more of them than Russian forces in the immediate future.  The Russian State Police has also requested the BPM-97, though it is an open question as to when they will get any. The BPM-97 has also been offered on the international arms market, with several interested parties.

     The BPM-97 uses the chassis of a KamAZ-4326 truck, but the chassis is highly-modified to accommodate the armored body.  The BPM-97 has a sharply-sloped front end, with moderately-sloped sides.  The BPM-97 uses aluminum armor.  The driver and commander sit in the front behind the engine with separate bullet-resistant windshields to the front and bullet-resistant windows to the sides.  Optionally, these windshields may be furnished with armored shutters with vision slits in them, and the side windows can be fitted with sliding armored shutters. Entry and exit to the vehicle is by a pair of doors in the rear; the driver and commander also enter and exit through this door.  Alternatively, the crew and troops may use a two-piece circular hatch in the center of the rear deck.  Three firing ports are found in each side of the hull, and one in each rear door.  There are also small, half-height doors in the lower hull on each side of the hull; these are rather small and best used for the loading of equipment or as auxiliary firing ports for heavier weapons than small arms.  The basic BRM-97 has no turret and is armed only with a machinegun or automatic grenade launcher on a pintle mount by the deck hatch mentioned above.  The BPM-97 has a collective NBC system.

     The BPM-97 is powered by a KamAZ-740.10-20 240-horsepower diesel engine, coupled to an automatic transmission, with conventional controls for the driver.  The BPM-97 has antilock brakes as well as a limited slip differential.  The ride may be a bit rough, as the BPM-97 uses only leaf springs for the suspension and not conventional shock absorbers.  The suspension, though 4x4, is better suited to road use than off-road use, though the limited slip differential does improve the off-road mobility a little.  The tires are run-flat, and the floor armor is slightly reinforced against mines, as is the suspension (but only slightly).  The front has a 5-ton capacity winch with 60 meters of cable.

     KamAZ has demonstrated several versions with turrets.  One is a turret in a semi-overhead weapons station which has an autocannon and a coaxial machinegun, along with an externally-mounted AG-17 grenade launcher which is reloaded from the deck hatch.  The AG-17 has independent elevation and depression and limited independent traverse.  Another turret is much simpler, being a small turret armed only with a Kord heavy machinegun.  Another turret demonstrated is the turret of the BTR-80 mounted on the BPM-97.  Yet another turret is a small turret with a pair of light machineguns.  The turrets have four smoke grenade launchers on each side of the turret. So far, no sales of these versions have been made.

     Twilight 2000 Notes: The BPM-97 does not exist in the Twilight 2000 timeline.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

BPM-97 (Basic)

$18,733

D, A

1 ton

10.5 tons

3+7

6

Headlights

Enclosed

BPM-97 (Autocannon Turret)

$77,305

D, A

575 kg

12.2 tons

3+6

7

Passive IR (D, G), Image Intensification (G)

Enclosed

BPM-97 (Kord Turret)

$50,816

D, A

900 kg

10.8 tons

3+6

6

Passive IR (D, G), Image Intensification (G)

Enclosed

BPM-97 (BTR-70 Turret)

$48,798

D, A

900 kg

10.8 tons

3+6

6

Passive IR (D, C)

Enclosed

BPM-97 (Twin MG Turret)

$52,374

D, A

900 kg

10.8 tons

3+6

6

Passive IR (D, G), Image Intensification (G)

Enclosed

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

BPM-97 (Basic)

217/57

50/14

270

100

Stnd

W(3)

HF6  HS4  HR3*

BPM-97 (Autocannon Turret)

187/49

43/12

270

116

CiH

W(3)

TF3  TS3  TR3  HF6  HS4  HR3*

BPM-97 (Kord Turret)/(BTR-70 Turret)/(Twin MG Turret)

210/55

49/14

270

103

CiH

W(3)

TF3  TS3  TR3  HF6  HS4  HR3*

Shoet II

204/69

48/16

300

70

Stnd

W(3)

HF2  HS2  HR2*

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

BPM-97 (Basic)

None

None

Kord/NSV or PKT or AGS-17

1000x12.7mm or 1650x7.62mm or 420x30mm Grenades

Shoet II

+2

Fair

30mm 2A72 Autocannon, PKT, AGS-17

200x30mm, 2000x7.62mm, 120x30mm Grenades

BPM-97 (Kord Turret)

+2

Fair

Kord

1500x12.7mm

BPM-97 (BTR-70 Turret)

+1

Basic

KPV, PKT

500x14.5mm, 3000x7.62mm

BPM-97 (Twin MG Turret)

+2

Fair

2xPKT

2500x7.62mm

*Roof AV is 3; Floor AV is 4.

 

ZiS BTR-152

     Notes: The BTR-152, also known in some early sources as the BTR-140, was designed after the Second World War as a heavier counterpart to the BTR-40 design.  It was a competitor to the BTR-40, with design work beginning in 1946, and acceptance into the Soviet Army in early 1950.  It is essentially a medium truck design which has an armored body added.  The design failed in the mobility department; nonetheless, it enjoyed a long service career, and some are still in use in some Third World countries. Nearly 50 countries used or still use the BTR-152, and despite its mediocre design, was by numbers a successful vehicle.  The BTR-152 has been modified into a bewildering number of variants and fitted with alternate weaponry, often by the countries using them.  The last BTR-152 was built in 1962.

     The basic BTR-152 was built on the chassis of a Zil-151 6x6 truck (some are based on the Zil-157), with an open-topped all-welded steel body mounted on it.  The open top gave it the same vulnerability as the basic BTR-40, though it kept down the weight.  This was important, because, despite a stronger engine than the Zil-151 truck, the BTR-152 is well underpowered.  Armament is basic, being a single machinegun on a pintle mount in front of the troop compartment between and behind the driver’s and commander’s positions.  On each side of the troop compartment is also a machinegun.  Ammunition stowage is unfortunately sparse.  The passenger space is large, however, primarily because of the open top and because internal accommodations are spartan. There is a door at the rear of the vehicle. The driver and commander sit in the front of the vehicle behind bullet-resistant windshields which can be covered with an armored shutter with a vision slit in them.  The cab has side doors which are hinged at the top; there is no glass in the side doors, however.

     The BTR-152 is powered by a ZiS-123 gasoline engine with 110 horsepower (ZiS-137K 107-horsepower for versions based on the Zil-157, but equivalent in game terms).  This leaves the BTR-152 not only underpowered, but gives it poor range. The engine is in the front, like a truck. The 6x6 suspension is not very good for off-road use, and better-suited for road use.  The tires of the original versions are not run-flat and do not have central tire pressure regulation.  The wheels have both leaf springs and hydraulic shock absorbers, and the rear wheels also have torsion bars, and actually give a decent ride. The front bumper has a winch with a capacity of 5 tons and 60 meters of cable.

     The original BTR-152 was based on the Zil-151, a truck known for its poor reliability and mechanical problems.  These were later replaced with BTR-152s based on the improved Zil-157, a more robust and reliable truck.  These are called the BTR-152V. The BTR-152V has central tire pressure regulation, somewhat improving off-road performance, and adding a night vision block for the driver for use with IR headlights added to the vehicle.

     Based on the BTR-152V, the BTR-152K has an armored top added to the troop compartment and cab.  The BTR-152K does not have a conventional collective NBC system, but does have blowers and a forced air system that allows the commander to blow a large amount of smoke or chemical agents from the vehicle.  There are two hatches added to the top of the vehicle for troops to fire out or to enter and exit, and the door in the rear remains.  The troop complement is reduced substantially.  The BTR-152K variant comprises about a third of all BTR-152s produced.

     The Israelis used a large number of captured BTR-152s (mostly BTR-152s and BTR-152Vs) for a time in the 1960s and 1970s.  Most were used as is and converted to carry the TCM-20 antiaircraft gun set, but some were used as APCs and by Israeli Police.  Israel later began selling them on the international arms market after giving them the Shoet II modification, which sold reasonably well.  The Shoet II modification was primarily in the engine and transmission, which on the Shoet II is a 172-horsepower V-53 diesel engine coupled to an automatic transmission which also has a locking differential.  Armament is replaced by an M-2HB over and behind the commander’s position, an M-1919A4 (converted to 7.62mm NATO) over and behind the driver’s position, and a pair of MAGs at the rear.  Extra stowage on the sides for water and fuel cans is provided, and the suspension is raised and beefed up to make the Shoet II perform better off-road.  The Shoet II has sold to undisclosed customers, mostly as upgrade kits.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

BTR-152

$31,365

G, A

800 kg

8.6 tons

2+18

6

Headlights

Open

BTR-152V

$34,565

G, A

800 kg

8.6 tons

2+18

7

Active IR (D)

Open

BTR-152K

$37,365

G, A

800 kg

9 tons

2+13

7

Active IR (D)

Enclosed

Shoet II

$43,446

D, A

800 kg

8.8 tons

2+16

6

Passive IR (D)

Open

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

BTR-152

150/37

27/8

300

56

Stnd

W(3)

HF2  HS2  HR2*

BTR-152V

150/44

27/10

300

56

Stnd

W(3)

HF2  HS2  HR2*

BTR-152K

144/42

26/10

300

59

Stnd

W(3)

HF2  HS2  HR2

Shoet II

204/69

48/16

300

70

Stnd

W(3)

HF2  HS2  HR2*

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

BTR-152

None

None

DShK, 2xPK or SG-43 (Sides)

500x12.7mm, 2500x7.62mm

Shoet II

None

None

M-2HB (Front), M-1919A4 (Front), 2xMAG (Rear)

750x.50, 4500x7.62mm

*These versions have no Roof armor.