ASA Guardian

     Notes:  This is a light APC in use by Italy and some Middle Eastern countries.  It is primarily designed for antiriot and police SRT use.  It is basically a stretched, raised, and armored version of the Fiat Campagnola light vehicle (see Italian Unarmored Vehicles) with a more powerful engine, armored body, and various accouterments to equip it for its role. 

     The ASA Guardian has doors on either side of the cab, a hatch in the center of the roof (usually without a weapon mount), and a door in the rear with a spare tire attached. Each cab door has a firing port, and there is one on each side of the vehicle and one in the rear, but these are merely shutters for holes cut in the armored body and not sealed firing ports. Between the two halves of the windshield is also a firing port. Layout is otherwise conventional, with the engine at the front, the cab behind the engine, and the troop compartment at the rear.  The body is made of light aluminum alloy which provides basic protection against small arms and shell fragments.  This fits its role as being primarily a police vehicle and not an APC. The driver and commander have a bullet-resistant windshield to their front and bullet-resistant windows to their sides, a small such window is found in each side hear the top of the vehicle and near the top of the rear of the vehicle in the rear door. The firing ports are below these, and clearly the firing ports are meant to be used by standing troops or officers.  Interior appointments are plush for such a vehicle, with padded seats for the troops and bucket seats for the driver and commander. Atop the Guardian is a hatch, though it has no weapon mount nor provision for one. Flashing lights, sirens, and a ramming bumper are standard, as is air conditioning and a winch with a 3-ton capacity and 60 meters of cable.

     The suspension is 4x4, but it is more suited to road use than off-road and has limited off-road capability.  The wheels, however, are independently sprung. The engine is a 80-horsepower gasoline engine, so it is just as well that the vehicle is light in weight; this is coupled to a manual transmission, though the Guardian does have power steering and brakes.

     A Mk 2 version exists; this is characterized primarily by an increase in front and side armor.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

Guardian

$3,092

G, A

495 kg

2.73 tons

2+4

2

Headlights

Enclosed

Guardian Mk 2

$3,464

G, A

395 kg

2.93 tons

2+4

2

Headlights

Enclosed

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

Guardian

251/110

58/21

57

48

Stnd

W(3)

HF2  HS2  HR2

Guardian Mk 2

233/102

54/20

57

51

Stnd

W(3)

HF3  HS3  HR2

 

Boneschi MAV-4

     Notes:  The Boneschi MAV-4 is a light armored vehicle used by the Italians as a command post carrier in their light formations.  It is described as a ďmulti-purpose armored vehicleĒ and can also be fitted out as a light APC for the police or rear-area role. It is basically a Fiat 80.17 truck chassis fitted with a steel armored body, and looks like an armored van.

     The MAV-4 has a cab with a commanderís and driverís position; the driver has a large bullet-resistant windshield, while the commander has a smaller bullet-resistant window to the front.  Both have bullet-resistant windows to their sides.  They have doors in the sides of their cab.  The commander has a hatch above his position, but a weapon mount is not normally fitted.  On the sides are four vision blocks with firing ports under them, but these are simple shuttered openings and not sealed firing ports. Two such ports are also found in the rear, where there is also a door.  The commander also has a firing port below his windshield.  On the roof of the MAV-4 is a hatch that is meant primarily as an emergency exit, but can be used by standing troops. Also on the roof is an air conditioner, ceiling lights (inside), and flashing lights and a siren (on police models).  In addition, the MAV-4 has fire resistant paint and a firefighting system that allows the MAV-4 to put out fires directly ahead of the vehicle to protect the tires, engine, and transmission; it can put out five medium-sized fires. In APC models, there are seats for 12 troops, seven on the left and five on the right.  On the command version, the vehicle has 2 long-range, two medium-range, and two short-range radios; one of the long-range radios is data-capable.  The command version has a ruggedized laptop computer and an inertial land navigation system.  It has a map board and storage for maps, as well as plotting and office-type supplies.  

     The MAV-4ís suspension is best suited for road use, but has some off-road capability.  It is a 4x4 suspension, switchable to 4x2 for road use, with a locking differential.  At the front of the vehicle is a 5-ton-capacity winch with 60 meters of cable. The engine is a Fiat diesel developing 160 horsepower.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

MAV-4 APC

$5,989

D, A

2 tons

9.5 tons

2+12

6

Headlights

Enclosed

MAV-4 Command

$197,797

D, A

1 ton

9.6 tons

2+5

8

Headlights

Enclosed

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

MAV-4 APC

155/58

36/13

130

80

Stnd

W(2)

HF3  HS2  HR2

MAV-4 Command

154/57

36/13

130

81

Stnd

W(2)

HF3  HS2  HR2

 

Boneschi MAV-5

     Notes:  Another light armor vehicle by Boneschi, the MAV-5 is used by the Italian Carabineri, and by Italian Army units in UN peacekeeping roles.  It is basically an IVECO 40.10 4x4 truck chassis with a steel armored body.  All windows and vision blocks are of bullet-resistant glass.  The driver is at the front of the vehicle on the left, with the commander to his right, with a windshield to their front and windows to each side.  The troops are seated on swiveling seats; just ahead of them on each side is a door, and they each have firing ports on the sides of the vehicle.  These firing ports are shuttered ports and not sealed firing ports. In addition, there are two firing ports to the rear, where there is also a door.  The engine is at the front of the vehicle, and the whole vehicle looks like an armored van.  The MAV-5 has ceiling lights, air conditioning, and a tear gas filtering system.  A pintle mount for a machinegun is on the roof just behind the driver. The suspension is 4x4, but best suited for road use, and uses a manual transmission with a 103-horsepower diesel engine.

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

$11,065

D, A

600 kg

4.45 tons

2+6

2

Headlights

Enclosed

 

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

220/54

51/13

75

49

Stnd

W(2)

HF2  HS2  HR2

 

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

None

None

MG-42/59 (C)

1000x7.62mm

 

Fiat 6614

     Notes:  Also called the Type 6614, this is a light wheeled APC built by Italy and used by that country and Argentina, South Korea, Peru, Libya, Somalia, Tunisia, and Venezuela.  South Korea built the Fiat 6614 under license and called it the KM-900. Some Peruvian Fiat 6616s are heavily-modified for use in the ATGM/scout role.  Most countries, however, that use or used the Fiat 6614 use them in a more-or-less stock configuration. The Fiat 6614 was designed for use by military police or civilian police, scout units, and countries who cannot afford more advanced vehicles.  They are also designed to be used by units which require lighter vehicles such as mountain troops or airborne troops.

 

The Fiat 6614

     The Fiat 6614 has a boat-shaped front hull with a sharply-raked glacis plate.  The sides are only slightly sloped, and the rear is unsloped. The armored hull of the Fiat 6614 is of all-welded steel.  The driver is in the front center, with small bullet-resistant windows to his front and left and right sides. He has conventional controls, but a manual transmission.  He has a hatch above his position; the hatch has a space into which a night vision block can be inserted.  To the rear of this position is the commanderís position, which is armed with a light, medium, or heavy machinegun (examples are given below).  This position is sometimes surrounded with AV2 gun shields.  The troops sit down each side of the rear hull and enter and exit through a rear ramp which also has a hatch in it.  There is also a door in each side of the hull just behind the driverís compartment.  There are three firing ports in each side of the vehicle and two in the rear.  The Fiat 6614 has a pair of roof hatches over the rear of the hull. Smoke grenade launchers are found at the top of the glacis, three per side.

     The Fiat 6614 is powered by an Iveco 8062.24 turbocharged diesel engine with 160 horsepower.  The vehicle is amphibious with 2 minutes of preparation, and is propelled in the water by its wheels, but it is horrendously slow in water. The Fiat 6614 is a 4x4 vehicle which has an off-road-type suspension.

     Note that ROK KM-900s are typically armed with M-2HBs instead of lighter machineguns.

 

APC-Type Variants

     The South Koreans produced several variants of their version of the Fiat 6614 (which they called the KM-900), which are collectively called the KM-901.  APC-type variants (there is also a KM-901-based mortar carrier) include an armored ambulance, which can carry two stretcher-borne patients and four sitting patients, as well as a medic in the rear.  This vehicle has a defibrillator, an oxygen administration set, the equivalent of one doctorís medical bag and 10 personal medical kits, and an assortment of splints, bandages, and items such as space blankets and minor medical items like burn cream and blister treatment kits.  They also produced a command version, which has two long-range radios, a medium-range radio, and a short-range radio; one of the long-range radios is data-capable.  The command vehicle has a ruggedized laptop computer, a map board, equipment and storage for maps, and office and plotting supplies. A hand held thermal imager, image intensifier, and laser rangefinder are carried. Fold-out shelves and three folding chairs are provided.

     Italy produced 50 of the Fiat 6616 version for their own use as scout vehicles and for the Carabineri.  Libya, Peru, and Somalia later bought some. They have a two-man turret armed with a light autocannon and a rear troop area which carries more ammunition for the guns and extra radios (including a long-range, medium-range, and short-range), as well as extra equipment.  It carries no dismount team.  The turret has improved vision gear, both for day and night, including day and night telescopic gear. Beside the commanderís position is a 106mm recoilless rifle.

     The Peruvians have produced a local modification of the Fiat 6616; it is believed that all of their Fiat 6616ís have been modified this way.  This includes a large, three-man turret with a light autocannon, coaxial machinegun, a commanderís machinegun (a 7.62mm version of the M-1919A4), and a pair of side-mounted HJ-73 Red Arrow ATGMs.  They do not carry the 106mm recoilless rifle. The turret has considerable day and night vision equipment, as well as good fire control equipment. The commander can access the gunnerís vision equipment. The vehicle is meant as a scout/recon vehicle and does not have a dismount squad, but instead carries extra ammunition, missiles, and radios (at least two long-range, one medium-range, and one short-range radios) and equipment, in the same manner as a standard Fiat 6616.

     A version of the Fiat 6616 armed with a 60mm HVMS autocannon was produced as an experiment, but not proceeded with.  I have provided ďwhat-ifĒ stats below.

 

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

Fiat 6614

$26,825

D, A

1.2 tons

8.5 tons

2+8

6

Passive IR (D)

Enclosed

KM-901 Ambulance

$30,849

D, A

600 kg

8.7 tons

*

7

Passive IR (D)

Enclosed

KM-901 Command

$252,195

D, A

600 kg

9 tons

2+4

8

Passive IR (D)

Enclosed

Fiat 6616

$73,476

D, A

400 kg

8 tons

3

6

Passive IR (D, G), Image Intensification (G)

Enclosed

Peruvian Fiat 6616

$128,415

D, A

400 kg

8.1 tons

3

6

Passive IR (D, G), Image Intensification (G), Thermal Imaging (G)

Enclosed

Fiat 6616-60

$89,720

D, A

400 kg

8.2 tons

3

6

Passive IR (D, G), Image Intensification (G)

Enclosed

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

Fiat 6614

152/77

36/18/2

142

80

Stnd

W(3)

HF6  HS3  HR2

KM-901 Ambulance

149/75

35/18/2

142

82

Stnd

W(3)

HF6  HS3  HR2

KM-901 Command

143/72

34/17/2

142

85

Stnd

W(3)

HF6  HS3  HR2

Fiat 6616

161/82

38/19/2

142

75

Trtd

W(3)

HF4  HS3  HR3  HF6  HS3  HR2

Peruvian Fiat 6616

159/81

38/19/2

142

77

Trtd

W(3)

HF4  HS3  HR3  HF6  HS3  HR2

Fiat 6616-60

158/80

37/19/2

142

77

Trtd

W(3)

HF4  HS3  HR3  HF6  HS3  HR2

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

Fiat 6614/M-901 Command

None

None

MG-42/59 (C) or MAG (C) or M-2HB (C)

1600x7.62mm or 1000x.50

Fiat 6616

+1

Basic

20mm Rh-202 Autocannon, MG-42/59, M-40A2 Recoilless Rifle (C)

400x20mm, 2500x7.62mm, 39x106mm

Peruvian Fiat 6616

+2

Fair

20mm Rh-202 Autocannon, MAG, M-1919A4 (C), 2xHJ-73 ATGM Launchers

400x20mm, 3000x7.62mm, 8xHJ-73 ATGMs

Fiat 6616-60

+2

Fair

60mm HVMS Autocannon, MG-42/59, MG-42/59 (C)

200x60mm, 3000x7.62mm

*See Notes for Crew and passenger capacity.

 

Iveco/Oto-Breda Centauro VBC

     Notes:  This is an eight-wheeled armored personnel carrier that is used by the Italian Army.  It is based on the Centaur B1 tank destroyer vehicle (q.v.), but has a smaller turret, armed with an autocannon.  A newer version, the VBM Freccia (Arrow) has better armor and ATGMs.  Production of the original Centauro VBC began in 1990; production of the Freccia is a more recent development which started development in the 1990s, but did not appear in service until 2006.

 

The Centauro VBC

     The Centauro VBC has the same basic hull as the Centauro B1, but the interior is greatly changed to reflect its role as an infantry squad carrier leader.  The rear has a troop section with the troops sitting down each side of the vehicle.  There are two firing ports on each side of the vehicle and two in the rear.  There is a hatch on the rear deck, but primary troop access is by a rear ramp which itself has a hatch in it.  Under the troop seats is space for their equipment and ammunition, and there are also racks inside the vehicle for the same.  The troop compartment is rather cramped, though it is wide.

     The turret is towards the center of the vehicle, and is armed with an autocannon and coaxial machinegun.  It is a two-man turret, with the gunner having a laser rangefinder for help in aiming and a small computer. The commander has access to the gunnerís vision equipment.  On each side of the turret is a cluster of four smoke grenade launchers. The driverís compartment is on the front left and has conventional controls with power assist for the steering and brakes.  The suspension is 8x8 and an off-road suspension, and the front and rear wheel sets steer independently to reduce turn radius.  The engine is an Iveco MTCA turbocharged diesel developing 520 horsepower, and is coupled to an automatic transmission.

 

The Centauro VBM Freccia

     The newer version is the Centauro VBM Freccia.  The biggest change is the addition of an ATGM launcher on each side of the turret; the turret is a modified version of the same is that on the VCC-80 Dardo, the HITFIST-Plus turret.  At first, the launchers were for TOW II missiles, but recently, Italy has begun replacing them with Israeli-made Spike-LR missiles in 2006.  The autocannon and ammunition remain the same except for the addition of missiles.  The commander has been given a machinegun of his own.  The engine has been increased in power to 550 horsepower, which is necessary as the Freccia is heavier than the VBC.  The Freccia has been fitted with an NBC overpressure system with a collective NBC backup.  Armor protection is increased over that of the VBC.  Fire control equipment has increased, and the vehicle has been given a hunter/killer capability. Despite the extra ammunition, interior rearrangement has allowed for an additional infantryman to sit in the rear.

     An experimental version of the Freccia has been armed with the Israeli-made 60mm HVMS autocannon.  Other than the alterations necessary for this weapon, the vehicle is unchanged.

 

     Twilight 2000 Notes: The VBC was the primary version of the Centauro IFV used by Italy in the Twilight 2000 timeline, with some 250 available when the war started.  However, about 50 Freccias were available for the war, all using TOW II launchers for their ATGM launchers.  The experimental variant of the Freccia with the 60mm autocannon was not available for the Twilight 2000 timeline.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

VBC

$187,848

D, A

1.4 tons

24 tons

3+6

16

Passive IR (D, G), Image Intensification (G), Thermal Imaging (G)

Shielded

Freccia

$379,696

D, A

1.1 tons

26 tons

3+7

17

Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G, C), Thermal Imaging (G, C)

Shielded

Freccia-60

$409,176

D, A

1.1 tons

26.1 tons

3+7

17

Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G, C), Thermal Imaging (G, C)

Shielded

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

VBC

168/101

41/20

540

277

Trtd

W(8)

TF6  TS6  TR5  HF14Sp  HS9Sp  HR7*

Freccia

160/81

37/19

540

294

Trtd

W(8)

TF10Sp  TS6Sp  TR5  HF15Sp  HS10Sp  HR7**

Freccia-60

158/80

37/19

540

297

Trtd

W(8)

TF10Sp  TS6Sp  TR5  HF15Sp  HS10Sp  HR7**

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

VBC

+2

Good

25mm KBA Autocannon, MG-42/59

900x25mm, 2000x7.62mm

Freccia

+4

Good

25mm KBA Autocannon, MG-42/59, MG-42/59 (C), 2xTOW II or Spike-LR Launchers

900x25mm, 3000x7.62mm, 7xTOW II or Spike-LR ATGM

Freccia-60

+4

Good

60mm HVMS Autocannon, MG-42/59, MG-42/59 (C), 2xSpike-LR Launchers

375x60mm, 3000x7.62mm, 7xSpike-LR ATGM

*Floor AV is 6.

**Floor AV is 7Sp.

 

Iveco/Oto-Breda Puma

     Notes:  The Puma is a series of light APCs which come in 4x4 and 6x6 versions, with the 4x4 version being a scout vehicle and the 6x6 version being a light APC. They were made for the Italian Army, who wanted a light wheeled APC to operate with its Centauro B1 and Centauro VBC vehicles. The Puma is also used by special operations units like the Folgore Brigade and units like their Alpini Regiments and Lagunari (Marine) Regiment. Two of the 6x6 version are also employed by Argentine forces when deployed on UN peacekeeping missions.  Some 250 6x6 versions and 330 4x4 versions are operated by Italy; they have seen combat service in Afghanistan, where they have shown themselves surprisingly resistant to crew and passenger injury due to mines and IEDs. The hulls are, of course, different due to the 4x4 versionís smaller size and lesser amount of wheels, but mechanically they are almost identical, and some details like the driverís compartment and the commanderís station are also identical.  Deliveries began in 1999, and were completed in 2003.  In addition to APC and scout vehicles, armored ambulances, command vehicles, mortar vehicles, SAM vehicles, and two types of ATGM Pumas are produced, and an experimental unmanned ground vehicle version has been made.

     The hull of the Puma is of all-welded steel, with the engine in the front and the driver on the front left side. The commanderís station is to the rear and right of the driver, and is slightly off-center.  The driver has conventional controls, and his hatch has vision blocks to the front and left (with one slightly to the right); the center front block can be removed and replaced with a night vision block.  His station is separated from the rest of the vehicle by a bulkhead. The vision blocks are built into the hatch, which can be locked partially open enough for him to see out or opened completely for him to enter and exit. Troop entry and exit is by a rear door of doors in the sides (between the two sets of wheels in the 4x4 version, and between the two front sets of wheels and the rear set of wheels for the 6x6 version). There is also a large circular hatch on the rear deck on the 6x6 version. The commanderís station is normally armed with a machinegun or automatic grenade launcher, but in 2005, Italy began arming some of their Pumas with Kongsberg M-151 Protector RWS armed with an M-2HB.  The side and rear doors are each equipped with a firing port and a vision block.  Three smoke grenade launchers are found on either side of the vehicle at roughly the center of the vehicle at the top.

     The Puma is equipped with an Iveco 4V 180-horsepower engine, coupled to an automatic transmission.  The suspension in either case is an off-road-type suspension; in the 4x4 version, it is switchable to 4x2 for road use.  In the 6x6 version, it is switchable to 6x4.  Ground clearance is good and contributes to the Pumaís protection against mines and IEDs.  The floor is also reinforced against such explosions.  The Puma has power steering and power brakes, and the Puma has a collective NBC system.  It also has an automatic fire detection and suppression system for the crew compartment, engine compartment, driverís compartment, and fuel tanks.

     The armored ambulance and command versions are both based on 6x6 versions of the Puma.  The armored ambulance can carry four stretcher-borne patients, two stretcher patients and four sitting patients, or six sitting patients, along with a medic.  The vehicle has a defibrillator, an oxygen administration set, a small refrigerator for perishable supplies, the equivalent of two doctorís medical bags and 20 personal medical kits, and supplies like bandages, splints, space blankets, burn first-aid kits, and suchlike.

     The command version has a map board, storage for more maps and plotting and office-type supplies, six radios (two long-range Ė one data-capable, two medium-range, and two short-range), a ruggedized laptop computer, and fold-out shelves and three folding chairs. A hand-held thermal imager, image intensifier, and laser rangefinder are carried.

     The 4x4 scout versions of the Puma typically have an extra long-range radio (for two total).  Italian doctrine is to operate the scout versions in pairs.

     Twilight 2000 Notes: The Puma was first seen in combat against the Germans in early 1998. 

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

Puma Scout

$22,965

D, A

950 kg

7 tons

2+5

2

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

Puma Scout w/RWS

$31,323

D, A

950 kg

7.2 tons

2+5

3

Passive IR (D, C), Image Intensification (C)

Shielded

Puma APC

$22,652

D, A

1.2 tons

8.2 tons

2+8

6

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

Puma APC w/RWS

$35,880

D, A

1.2 tons

8.4 tons

2+8

6

Passive IR (D, C), Image Intensification (C)

Shielded

Puma Ambulance

$26,050

D, A

600 kg

8.4 tons

**

7

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

Puma Command

$250,934

D, A

600 kg

8.4 tons

2+4

8

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

Puma Scout

180/91

42/21

150

92

Stnd

W(3)

HF6  HS4  HR3*

Puma Scout w/RWS

175/88

41/20

150

95

CiH

W(3)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF6  HS4  HR3*

Puma APC

159/80

37/18

270

108

Stnd

W(4)

HF6  HS4  HR3*

Puma APC w/RWS

156/78

36/18

270

110

CiH

W(4)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF6  HS4  HR3*

Puma Ambulance/Command

156/78

36/18

270

110

Stnd

W(4)

HF6  HS4  HR3*

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

Puma/Puma Command

None

None

MG-42/59 (C) or M-2HB (C) or HK GMG (C)

2000x7.62mm or 1200x.50 or 400x40mm

Puma w/RWS

+2

Fair

M-2HB (C)

1200x.50

*Floor AV is 4Sp.

**See Notes for Crew and passenger capacity.