Type 95/04/07/09

 

Type 95/Type 04

     The Type 95, also known as the Type 04, is the base vehicle of this line, it is almost like the Type 04A, but has a lesser fire control system and electro-optical package.  It is otherwise similar to the Type 04A; the Type 04A is in fact an upgrade of the Type 95.  Type 95 have been in service since at least 1999, and equip many divisions of the PLA.

 

Type 04A

     The second iteration of the Type 95-based antiaircraft vehicles uses the same basic turret and hull of the Type 07 and 09, but the turret is armed with four PGB87 25mm antiaircraft guns.  The guns are variants of the Oerlikon KBA, and the fire control electronics and controls are upgraded versions of those found in the Italian SIDAM antiaircraft gun.  The Type 04 also uses earlier iterations of MANPAD SAMs, two on each side with one outboard on each gun.  The Type 04 has no tracking radar; instead, targeting is done using day/night optical tracking, which limits performance in all-weather conditions.  The Type 04 is known for its capability to feed from almost endless belts of ammunition; for each gun, up to seven belts of ammunition may be linked together ands the guns are capable of pulling this many belts into the guns for firing.  (This, of course, makes the turret interior busy and cluttered.)  For specific functions of the hull, look at the description of the Type 09, as the Type 04A has basically the same hull and turret and hatch and crew layout. 

     The Type 04A is equipped with CLC-1 S-Band Pulse-Doppler search radar, which can track up to 15 potentially hostile aircraft, and feed coordinates for up to four targets to the FC system.  Final targeting is done using day/night electro-optical sights, with a combination of sighting mechanism.  The FC system automatically slaves the guns and turret to the aircraft deemed by the commander to need the most attention.  The Gunner may also select targets in the absence of direction from the commander, using the same parameters.  Engagement parameters are the same as the Type 09, though the engagement range is lessened due to the shorter range of the 25mm autocannons. 

     The Type 04A was first revealed in a parade in 2009; it has properly been operating with the PLA since 2007, and equips many PLA divisions.  Many Type 95s, when they come in for depot-level maintenance, are upgraded to the Type 04A standard.

 

But Before the Type 09, There Was the Type 07Ö

     The best way to think about the Type 07 is that it is nearly the same as the Type 09, but less.  The FC suite is less, the surveillance radar range is less (11 kilometers), and the stabilization is less.  In addition, the day/night system is not as comprehensive.  It otherwise uses the same guns and missiles as the Type 09 and is more or less a less-evolved version of the Type 09.  Like the Type 09, there are relatively few Type 07s in service, and they are rapidly being upgraded to the Type 09 standard.

 

Type 09

     Though the more proper designation of this AAA system is the PGZ-09, it is more commonly referred to in the rest of the world as the Type 09. (And it was originally designated the PGZ-07, but redesignated after the installation of an enhanced sensor pod.)  It has only recently entered regular service with the PLA, and so far equips only one divisionís AAA brigade, that of the PLA 123rd Mech Infantry Division.  It is not yet available for export.

     The Type 09 uses twin Type 90 (PG99) 35mm long-barreled L/90 autocannons, coupled to an advanced fire control system and using several types of ammunition which make the Type 09 useful against ground targets as well as aircraft. They are believed to be heavily-modified forms of the Swiss Oerlikon KDA autocannons, also primarily used in AAA applications.  It was specifically designed, however, for use against air targets, ranging from decent-sized UAVs (such as about the size of a Predator) to aircraft and even cruise missiles flying at just above sonic speeds (about Mach 1.2 is its engagement limit, with engagements against aircraft flying at Mach 1.21-1.5 being one level harder, engagements against target flying at Mach 1.51-1.8 being two levels harder, and above that speed being three levels harder). The guns are on either side of the turret, with the radar dish in the front of the turret; it looks sort of reminiscent of a German Gepard. Some pictures on the Internet show Type 09s with two or even four short-ranged SAMs mounted to the outside and below each gun; though there are a lot of reasons to question anonymous Internet photos, Iím going to include the twin SAM on each side, just because it makes the Type 09 sexier, and the pictures Iíve seen of this arrangement donít look obviously Photoshopped.  Just to round things out, there are four smoke grenade launchers on either side of the turret.  There doesnít seem to be any sort of commanderís weapon in any photos Iíve been able to find.

     The Type 09 has a large tracking radar at the front of the turret, with an elevating surveillance radar in a rectangular shape at the rear of the turret.  This radar is not rotating, and is probably a digital system able to scan in all directions (though not all at once; most such system scan in a 30-degree arc with the direction of the arc changing every second). Detection of possible air threats is essentially automatic, including an IFF receiver; however, it is the commanderís responsibility under most circumstances to send a target to the tracking radar and FC system, which the gunner then acts upon.  Selecting a target for engagement also sends a signal to the guns and turret rotation system; if engagement is chosen, the gunner merely has to push a button to have the turret rotate and the guns/missiles to elevate to the correct alignment with the target.  In addition to the targeting radar, the gunner also has use of a day/night CCD camera, a FLIR camera, and advanced image intensification.  (These sensors are most useful when the Type 09 is in a heavy EW environment, or is being targeted by antiradiation missiles.) The fire control package also includes a laser rangefinder.  These are mounted above the targeting radar dish. The gunner also has access to modern fire control computers and stabilization systems.

     The surveillance radar on the back of the turret is an upgraded version of the CLC-1 S-Band Pulse-Doppler Search Radar, with a search range of 13 kilometers and a capability to track up to 20 potential hostile targets.  The targeting radarís range is matched to the range of the PLZ-09ís weapons range. The radar is optimized for low-flying targets, and is designed to ignore as much as possible ground clutter.

     The hull of the Type 09 seems to be the same as that of the PGZ-04 (which, in itself, seems to be a testing version of the Type 09).  The PGZ-09 has a torsion bar primary suspension with three shock absorbers on each side, which should give it a stable ride, and along with the FC system, allow the Type 09 to engage targets while traveling at a pretty good clip. The shared hull has a 12150L turbocharged diesel engine which develops 520 horsepower, and has a long, pointed-nose shape with a steeply-sloped glacis and moderately sloped sides.  The vehicle also has an 8kW APU, fueled by the vehicleís fuel. The turret is at the rear of the vehicle, and is cylinder-shaped.  Armor is said to be ďhigh-hardness steel.Ē  The driver is on the front right, with the engine to his left.  Though the Type 09 does not have a BMS, it does have a vehicle state computer, GPS/GLONASS, and a computerized land navigation system.  Though each member has an LCD screen for information, most controls are push-button.  The commander and gunner have hatches on the turret roof, and there is a hatch for the driver.  At the rear of the hull is a door to allow for quick replenishment of supplies and ammunition.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

Type 95

$863,125

D, A

800 kg

20.5 tons

3

21

Surveillance Radar (10km) (G, C), Day/Night CCD Camera (G, C), Thermal Imaging (G), Image Intensification (G), Passive IR (D)

Shielded

Type 04A

$1,041,625

D, A

771 kg

20.62 tons

3

22

Surveillance Radar (10km) (G, C), Day/Night CCD Camera (G, C), Thermal Imaging (G), 2nd Gen Image Intensification (G), Passive IR (D)

Shielded

Type 07

$1,833,439

D, A

758 kg

21.12 tons

3

23

Surveillance Radar (11km) (G, C), Tracking Radar (7 km) (G), Day/Night CCD Camera (G, C), FLIR (G, C), 2nd Gen Image Intensification (G), Passive IR (D)

Shielded

Type 09

$2,080,227

D, A

750 kg

21.43 tons

3

24

Surveillance Radar (13km) (G, C), Tracking Radar (9 km) (G), Day/Night CCD Camera (G, C), 2nd Gen FLIR (G, C), 2nd Gen Image Intensification (G), Passive IR (D)

Shielded

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

Type 95

172/121

48/33

776

193

Trtd

T4

TF20  TS8  TR6  HF30  HS15  HR8

Type 04A

167/118

47/32

776

198

Trtd

T4

TF20  TS8  TR6  HF30  HS15  HR8

Type 07

168/118

47/33

776

193

Trtd

T4

TF20  TS8  TR6  HF30  HS15  HR8

Type 09

166/116

46/33

776

196

Trtd

T4

TF20  TS8  TR6  HF30  HS15  HR8

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

Type 95

+1

Fair

4xPGB87 25mm Autocannons, 4xQW-2 SAMs

2000x25mm, 4xQW-2

Type 04A

+2

Fair

4xPGB87 25mm Autocannons, 4xQW-2 SAMs

3000x25mm, 4xQW-2

Type 07

+3

Good

2xPG99 35mm Autocannons, 4xFN-6 SAMs

4000x35mm, 4xFN-6

Type 09

+4

Good

2xPG99 35mm Autocannons, 4xFN-6 SAMs

4000x35mm, 4xFN-6

 

Type 63

     Notes: This self-propelled antiaircraft vehicle is one of the oldest still in the active Chinese inventory, and it is also still used by Vietnam.  The vehicle consists of a T-34-85 (called the Type 58 by the Chinese) tank chassis topped with an open turret mounting twin 37mm autocannons.  While the Type 63 was on par with contemporary foreign systems such as the US M42 Duster, due to the lack of fully hydraulic elevation and turret rotation systems (though they have hydraulic assist), the gun training on target is slow and generally cannot effectively engage low-flying aircraft or ground targets.  The Type 63 was made by mounting a Type 63 ground-mounted AAA gun on a turntable, with steel plate bolted around the sides, front, and back of the open area of the turret.  The guns are at about the same place as the Type 58ís gun and cannot be elevated or depressed individually.  The 37mm autocannons are tipped with conical flash suppressors, but no recoil management system or muzzle brake.  Unfortunately, the Type 63ís rounds are stored in a similar manner to the Type 59 (though belted), and if the turret is penetrated, there is a good chance of a catastrophic explosion.

     There is some disagreement over the origin of the Type 63.  While most experts follow the standard story of a PLA origin, there are some indications that the Type 63 may be in fact a local North Vietnamese variation of the Type 58.  Early Type 63s had a fully manual transmission, while about 1964, the controls were given a hydraulic boost.  The hull is virtually identical to that of the Type 58.

     Being a variant of the Type 58, the Type 63 is equipped with a Model 12150L 520-horsepower liquid-cooled diesel which is turbocharged.  Suspension is by torsion bar, but there are no shock absorbers, leading to a rough cross-country ride and aiming difficulties when on uneven ground.

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

$123,942

D, A

500 kg

32 tons

4

10

Active IR

Enclosed

 

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

120/84

30/21

590

185

Trtd

T4

TF22  TS8  TR7  HF56  HS14  HR10

 

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

+1

None

2x37mm Autocannons, PKT (Hull)

350x37mm, 1200x7.62mm

 

Type 69-37-2

     Notes: This is a Type 69 tank with the turret replaced with one mounting twin 37mm autocannons.  This is a clear-weather-only system for the most part, as most of them have no surveillance radar and none have tracking radar.  The optical sights are for use in severely ECM-degraded environments; they were never meant to be the gunís primary sights, with the gun receiving an encrypted stream of data from the FDC. The commander is seated on the left inside the turret and the gunner is on the right, with the autocannons between them. The gunner has a modicum of night vision gear and can feed some rudimentary targeting information from the surveillance radar if so equipped.  Armor protection is not nearly that of the Type 69 tank, but can still stand up to a lot of pushishment.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

No Radar

$310,169

D, A

800 kg

35 tons

3

20

Passive IR (D, G), Image Intensification (G, C)

Enclosed

Radar

$1,309,169

D, A

800 kg

35.5 tons

3

23

Radar (10km) (G), Passive IR (D, G), Image Intensification (G, C)

Enclosed

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

No Radar

120/84

33/23

935

208

Trtd

T6

TF16  TS6  TR6  HF40  HS10  HR8

Radar

118/83

31/21

935

211

Trtd

T6

TF16  TS6  TR6  HF40  HS10  HR8

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

No Radar

+1

None

Twin 37mm Autocannons

500x37mm

Radar

+2

None

Twin 37mm Autocannons

500x37mm

 

Type 80

     Notes: This is an older Chinese self-propelled antiaircraft gun, similar to the Russian ZSU-57-2, being essentially a Russian ZSU-57-2 turret mounted on a Type 69 hull; however, the front third of the turretís roof is armored, and there is a commanderís hatch with a weapon mount and a loaderís hatch.. The guns are copies of the Russian S-60s, designated Type 59 in Chinese service. Slightly larger than the ZSU-57-2, it carries more ammunition, has better gun stabilization, and better sights.  The hull armor is, however, thinner than that of the Type 69 tankís however. There is a wire cage on the rear of the turret for the crew to deposit empty shell casings and links.  The turret looks a bit bigger than that of the ZSU-57-2, but this is actually because the Type 69 tank hull is narrower than that of the T-55 base of the ZSU-57-2. Unlike most other Chinese weapons and vehicles, the Type 80 was not widely exported; according to some sources, the Type 80 never proceeded beyond LRIP.  The Iraqis were known to have had the Type 80 in its inventory, but all are believed to have been destroyed in Desert Storm and OIF.  The North Vietnamese used about 200 of them during the Vietnam War, but last combat use was during the Battle for Saigon in 1975, and none are believed to be still in service in Vietnam.

     Using a variant of the Type 69ís hull, the Type 80 has a 580-horsepower turbocharged diesel engine coupled to a manual transmission.  The hull, however, is one roadwheel longer (five instead of four), necessary to balance the larger turret.

     The Type 80ís performance was only adequate despite its speed and agility, and the PLA was not happy with it; it was basically a lesser-quality version of the ZSU-57-2.  Turret traverse was very slow. In addition, by the time of its introduction in the early 1980s, it was already out of date, and its radar hopelessly out of date. Export sales were also low, and the Chinese stopped producing it after a few years.  The original guns were copies of the Russian S-60, but the Chinese later changed them to S-68 copies in production, as the S-68 is able to use ammunition with proximity fuzes. (The S-60 and S-68 are the same for game purposes.) However, another version of the Type 80 was offered up a few years after production, with a tracking/ surveillance radar and twin Type 76 37mm autocannons.  It too never went past LRIP and did not see many export sales.  It did not get a designation of its own; I have provisionally called the Type 80-37-2 below.  It looks basically like the Type 80, but with smaller-caliber guns, and the larger turret enables it to carry more ammunition than the Type 69-37-2.  It is equipped with a variant of the same radar as on the Type 80, modified for use with the smaller-caliber and different-ranged guns of the Type 80-37-2.  The guns are the same as on the Type 69-37-2.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

Type 80

$761,968

D, A

550 kg

31 tons

6

15

Passive IR (D, G), Image Intensification (G), Radar (9km) (G)

Enclosed

Type 80-37-2

$680,563

D, A

590 kg

30.1 tons

6

15

Passive IR (D, G), Image Intensification (G), Radar (9km) (G)

Enclosed

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

Type 80

132/92

37/26

935

208

Trtd

T6

TF28  TS5  TR6  HF35  HS9  HR7

Type 80-37-2

134/93

38/26

935

205

Trtd

T6

TF28  TS5  TR6  HF35  HS9  HR7

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

Type 80

+1

Fair

2x57mm S-60 autocannons W-85 (C)

400x57mm, 300x12.7mm

Type 80-37-2

+1

Fair

2x37mm Type 76 37mm Autocannons, W-85 (C)

600x37mm, 300x12.7mm