X-1A/A1/A2

     Notes: These light tanks are a radical rebuild of the World War 2-era M-3A1 Stuart, with a new suspension, new diesel engine, new turret, heavier armament, and a new fire-control system.  The gun was the same as used on some versions of the AML-90, and was low recoil with a beefy muzzle brake. The original engine was replaced with a Swedish SAAB-Scania ICSD diesel, with 260 horsepower. The frontal armor, in addition to applique, was given increased slope. The sides of the tank were given a moderate slope. Communications were brought up to date, and the fourth crewmember could now operate as a loader. The suspension was replaced with a vertical volute system. These were adopted by the Brazilian Army in the early 1970s since their Stuart progenitors were getting a bit long in the tooth, and 80 were delivered.  The driver has a hatch on the front left side, and the commander and loader have hatches on the turret deck.  The gunner uses loader's hatch.  The X-1A is essentially an M-3A1 with a new engine and armament. 

     The X-1A1 is a stretched X-1A, primarily to allow for more ammunition stowage.  A third bogie was added, and the vehicle increased in length by 1.5 meters. However, no other improvements were made on the X-1A1, and no orders were made for this version.  However, the X-1A1 did not go to waste; while no X-1A1 light tanks were ordered, a modified version carrying the Avribas X-40 rocket launcher was built in small numbers.

     The X-1A2 is also an improved version of the X-1A.  Improvements have been made in the turret and hull armor, night vision has been added, a laser rangefinder has been installed, and air conditioning is provided.  The chassis lengthening and improvements were carried over to the X-1A2, and rearranged ammunition stowage allowed more rounds to be carried. The engine is also more powerful, replaced with a Saab-Scania ICSD uprated to 300 horsepower to cope with the added weight, and the fuel tanks are larger.  A more effective muzzle brake is installed, and the gun has been replaced with a British-made Cockerill CSE-90LP Low-Pressure Gun that has even less recoil forces. The gun has an autoloader, allowing the loader and his position to be removed from the vehicle. Only 30 of these light tanks were delivered between 1979 and 1983, but almost all of them were new-build vehicles.  The X-1A2 was also given a new name, the Carcara.

     X-1A, and X-1A1 variants were phased out in the 1990s.  X-1A2s are maintained in working order by civilian employees of Bernadelli, and kept in a reserve role.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

X-1A

$171,311

D, A

400 kg

15 tons

4

13

Headlights

Enclosed

X-1A1

$212,296

D, A

400 kg

17 tons

4

14

Headlights

Enclosed

X-1A2 Carcara

$312,588

D, A

450 kg

19 tons

3

8

Active/Passive IR

Enclosed

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

X-1A

118/83

33/23

245

87

Trtd

T2

TF6  TS5  TR5  HF10  HS5  HR4

X-1A1

107/75

30/21

320

93

Trtd

T3

TF6  TS5  TR5  HF10  HS5  HR4

X-1A2 Carcara

119/83

33/23

600

111

Trtd

T3

TF8  TS6  TR5  HF12  HS8  HR4

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

X-1A

+1

Fair

90mm French DEFA D921 Gun, MAG, M-2HB (C)

44x90mm, 2240x7.62mm, 670x.50

X-1A1

+2

Fair

90mm French DEFA D921 Gun, MAG, M-2HB (C)

59x90mm, 2240x7.62mm, 670x.50

X-1A2 Carcara

+3

Fair

90mm Cockerill CSE-LP Gun, MAG, M-2HB (C)

66x90mm, 2500x7.62mm, 750x.50