Jati/GG-95

     Notes: Designed by Jali Timari in 1980, this very small submachinegun (almost small enough to be considered a machine pistol) was originally called the Jati and also the Jati-Matic).  The original Jati began production in 1982, manufactured by a Finnish company called Tampereen Aspaja Oy.  Though a very innovative design, less than 500 were produced between 1982 and 1986, though most of them were in fact sold.

     Operation of the Jati is by modified blowback, using a telescoping bolt and firing from an open bolt.  The design of the Jati makes the barrel look like it is pointing upward from the end of the receiver; in fact, it is the receiver housing itself that is turned upward.  This unusual receiver design allows the bolt carrier group to move upwards at an angle of 7 degrees – not only putting the firing hand almost directly in line with the barrel, but also using the weight of the bolt itself to counteract recoil forces.  This unusual design is a bit more time-consuming and expensive to produce than a standard-format submachinegun, but is as efficient at fighting barrel climb as a muzzle brake.  (Felt recoil is a bit greater than a comparable submachinegun design, but the rest of the design easily compensates for that.)  Coupled with a plastic foregrip, the Jati’s design is quite effective at cutting barrel climb despite the low weight and without the use of it’s optional clip-on wire stock.  (The stock was usually sold as an accessory, and is more difficult to find than the Jati itself.) Even one-handed automatic fire is quite controllable.  The foregrip doubles as a safety and a charging handle – when folded, the bolt is locked in place whether it is forward or back, and when it is down, the foregrip can be pulled back and then pushed forward again to cock the weapon. (When forward, the foregrip locks firmly enough in place to prevent an inadvertent cocking, which would otherwise immediately jam the Jati.) The trigger is two-stage, with a half-pull giving semiautomatic fire, and a complete pull on the trigger giving automatic fire.  The cyclic rate of fire is only 650 rpm, allowing even inexperienced shooters to fire short bursts with minimal practice.  (Learning to control the two-stage trigger is more difficult than learning how to fire short bursts from the Jati, but the point where the trigger is pulled far enough for automatic fire is easily noticed, since before passing that point, the trigger pull becomes noticeably heavier.)  The magazine release is a lever behind the magazine well and below the front of the trigger guard; it is easily reached with the trigger finger (and is also made of polymer).  The design is otherwise simple – the Jati is comprised of a mere 39 parts.

     The Jati is designed for reliability in inclement weather, particularly the cold, damp, and often snowy environment of Scandinavia.  The operating design itself helps resist dirt and moisture; the ejection port is actually open only when a round’s primer ignites or during case ejection.  Otherwise, the bolt carrier group itself covers the ejection port.  The lower receiver, pistol grip, magazine well and trigger guard are a single polymer molding; the trigger, sear, disconnector, and foregrip are also made from polymer.  The rear sight is actually a simple fixed polymer notch sight that is a part of the lower receiver, while the front sight is a post protected by ears, and adjustable for elevation.  The 8-inch barrel is of stainless steel, as is the upper receiver and other externally exposed metal parts.  (An optional barrel with a threaded muzzle for use with a silencer was also made for the Jati.)  Many internal parts, particularly those subject to a lot of wear, are also made from stainless steel.  The design of the firing and feed mechanisms allow the Jati to digest virtually any sort of 9mm Parabellum ammunition.  Magazines designed for the Jati are generally made of extruded aluminum bodies with plastic followers and steel footplates and springs; these are the 20 and 40-round magazines in the tables below.  However, the Jati is also capable of using the 36-round magazines designed for the Carl Gustav m/45 submachinegun; with slight modification, magazines designed for the Smith & Wesson M-76 will also fit in a Jati.  An optional shoulder harness was made for the Jati; some were sold with the Jati as part of the package, and they were also sold separately.

     Another Finnish company, Oy Golden Gun Limited, bought the Jati design in the early 1990s; they modified the design considerably, and then began producing the weapon in limited numbers in 1995 as the GG-95.  Some of the design changes include a more conventional trigger group, with a selector switch that allows for safe, semiautomatic, burst, and automatic fire modes, instead of the two-stage trigger of the Jati.  The foregrip still doubles as a charging handle, but is now a secondary safety that locks the bolt when folded.  The sights are basically the same as those of the original Jati, but have high-contrast colors, and the front sight is no longer adjustable.  (A GG-95 comes from the factory with a zero set for the point of impact at 100 meters.)  In addition, there is a rail for the mounting of certain night vision or laser aiming modules directly; other sight bases or rails can also be mounted on this rail.  The GG-95 does not have the ability to mount the clip-on stock of the Jati; the GG-95 is marketed primarily as sort of a PDW or as a concealable weapon instead of a standard submachinegun.  Some GG-95 sales have been made, but the buyers have not been disclosed.

     Alert readers might notice that the Jati (in its original, stockless form) was the personal weapon carried by Spetsnaz Colonel Strelnikov (played by William Smith) in the 1983 movie, Red Dawn.

     Twilight 2000 Notes: In the Twilight 2000 timeline, production numbers were far greater – they were issued in large numbers to Finnish vehicle crewmen and rear-area troops, and in smaller numbers were also issued to Finnish senior NCOs and officers. Finnish special operations troops also used small numbers of the Jati.  In the mid-1990s, Jatis began to be used by US and Canadian Arctic Recon units; many of these Jatis were license-produced in Canada.  By 2000, many of these weapons had found their way into the hands of Russian, Swedish, and Norwegian units, and sometimes could be found as far away as Southern Europe, Siberia, Korea, and China.  On the other hand, the GG-95 does not exist in the Twilight 2000 timeline.

Weapon

Ammunition

Weight

Magazines

Price

Jati

9mm Parabellum

1.65 kg

14, 20, 24, 36, 40

$304

Jati Stock

N/A

0.2 kg

N/A

$30

GG-95

9mm Parabellum

1.65 kg

14, 20, 24, 36, 40

$390

 

Weapon

ROF

Damage

Pen

Bulk

SS

Burst

Range

Jati

5

2

Nil

2

1

3

19

With Stock

5

2

Nil

3

1

2

21

GG-95

3/5

2

Nil

2

1

2/3

19

 

Suomi m/31

     Notes: By 2010, this was one of the oldest firearms to be found in service anywhere – first seen in service in Finland in 1931, it could still be found in the hands of some crusty old Finns and Norwegians living in remote areas, as well as some other out-of-the-way places, though production stopped in 1944.  Though, as is typical for a design of its era, it is very heavy for a submachinegun, this contributes to its stability and reputation for accuracy due to its construction and the 12.25-inch barrel.  It is a very well-made weapon, quite reliable even 80 years later if properly cared for.  It can be fed from a 35, 36, or 50-round box magazine, or a 40 or 71-round drum; the 71-round drum was later copied by the Russians for use with the PPD-34/38 and PPSh-41.  It is also one of the few submachineguns you will find that comes with a bipod.  The m/31 was also used by Sweden (where it was called m/37-39), Denmark (who called the same) and Switzerland (who called the m/43/44).  It has long been out of official military service in any country, however.

Weapon

Ammunition

Weight

Magazines

Price

Suomi m/31

9mm Parabellum

4.87 kg

35, 36, 40D, 50, 71D

$640

 

Weapon

ROF

Damage

Pen

Bulk

SS

Burst

Range

Suomi m/31

10

2

2-Nil

5

1

3

32

Suomi m/31 (Bipod)

10

2

2-Nil

5

1

2

42

 

Suomi m/44

     Notes: Another old Finnish warhorse, the m/44 is basically a copy of the Russian PPS-43, which was being made in large numbers in Finland beginning just before the end of World War 2.  The m/44 has been converted to fire 9mm Parabellum ammunition, and may be fed either by the 36-round magazine used with the Swedish M-45 or the drum made for the m/31.  A later model, the m/46, cannot use the drum magazine and has a far better finish on it, but is otherwise identical.  The m/44 served until the mid-1960s, when it was replaced by the m/62 and later assault rifles, but actual production stopped in 1945.

Weapon

Ammunition

Weight

Magazines

Price

Suomi m/44

9mm Parabellum

2.81 kg

26, 71D

$298

 

Weapon

ROF

Damage

Pen

Bulk

SS

Burst

Range

Suomi m/44

5

2

2-Nil

5

1

3

26