M-44T

     Notes:  This is an upgrade of the old M-44 155mm self-propelled howitzer, which Turkey bought from the United States in the 1950s.  The upgrade work was done by a German consortium of MTU, GLS and Rheinmetall, and was comprehensive almost to the point of trashing the entire vehicle and starting from scratch. Design Work began in 1987, with upgrades being done as quickly as possible. Some 222 of these upgrades were done.  Turkey has expressed a willingness to do the upgrades for other countries, but there are no takers as of yet.  The upgrades are modular, so an end user may pick and choose about what upgrades to make.

     The original gasoline engine was replaced with a more fuel-efficient 450-horsepower MB-833 Aa-501 diesel engine, and the transmission was replaced in accordance with this new power pack and automatic instead of manual. An engine preheater has been fitted for starts in cold weather. The fuel tank size was increased, the electrical system was upgraded, and the gun was replaced with a standard NATO 155mm howitzer.  The gun is seated in the chassis to allow for the increased recoil of the new gun and to lower the silhouette; the gunner is seated in the chassis to put him in line with the gun. The commander is in a manually-rotating cupola with all-around vision blocks, and there is one loaderís hatch on the opposite side from the commander, with no vision blocks.  As the loaderís hatch is much further forward than the commanderís hatch, the loaderís hatch has a Plexiglas windshield in front of it to keep splashing down when fording or in muddy environments.

     The electrical system has been almost totally replaced, and the driverís instrument panel has been replaced. The suspension has new high-strength shock absorbers and torsion bars, and the track replaced by improved ones, and dust skirts installed. The new gun has new ammunition racks installed.

     Twilight 2000 Notes: 186 of these vehicles were converted beginning in 1986, and saw extensive service in Northern Iraq and Eastern Europe during the Twilight War. 

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

$295,043

D, A

750 kg

29.03 tons

5

22

Headlights

Enclosed

 

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

126/88

25/18

780

161

Stnd

T4

HF6  HS2  HR2

 

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

+1

Basic

155mm L/39 Howitzer, M-2HB (C)

24x155mm, 900x.50

 

M-52T K/M Obus

     Notes:  This is an upgraded version of the old M-52 105mm self-propelled howitzer, which Turkey bought from the US in the 1950s.  365 upgraded were completed, starting in 1995. As with the M-44T, the M-52T is a cooperative German/Turkish upgrade.

     Improvements include the replacement of the howitzer with a 155mm L/39 NATO howitzer in place of the former 105mm L/33 gun, replacement of the original gasoline engine with a 450-horsepower MB-833 Aa-501 diesel engine; the transmission was replaced in accordance with this new power pack and automatic instead of manual. An engine preheater has been fitted for starts in cold weather. The fuel tank size was increased and the gun mounted in a larger turret.  Computer fire control is also added, allowing the crew to accurately fire if the target location is known; though this generates faster coordinates, the assistance of an FDC is still needed, or inaccurate fire will result (x4 scatter distance).  As the electrical system was not up to par with the new systems, this has been upgraded as well; the suspension has also been upgraded to allow the increased weight.  The higher power gun also required the addition of a recoil spade at the rear of the chassis, which must be lowered before firing of the gun.

     On the right side of the turret roof is a manually-operated cupola for the commander.  On the left is a hatch on a non-rotating cupola for the driverr; this hatch has a wide-angle vision block on the left, and three normal ones to the front. On each side of the turret is a large door..  Unusually, the driver is seated in the turret basket; this allows the vehicle to have a smaller nose and allows for the new power pack, but takes some practice on the part of the driver.  (A vision block that always depicts a frontal sight picture helps.)  The turret has a limited traverse of 60 degrees left or right.

     Twilight 2000 Notes: 365 of these conversions were available at the beginning of the Twilight War.

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

$941,281

D, A

633 kg

29.5 tons

5

22

Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G)

Shielded

 

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

121/85

24/17

780

153

Trtd

T4

TF5  TS3  TR3  HF6  HS2  HR2

 

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

+3

Basic

155mm L/39 Howitzer, M-2HB (C)

48x155mm, 500x.50