Arzamas 1V18/1V19

     Notes:  The BTR-60 1V18 Klyon-1 is a standard BTR-60PB that has been converted into a FIST vehicle.  Its turret has been replaced with one of a different shape and unarmed, often called a “Darth Vader” turret due to its superficial resemblance to his helmet.  The turret houses extra day and night observation gear as well as a laser rangefinder and laser designator.  The turret has a hatch. The vehicle also has a 4kW internal generator, a fire direction computer, three long-range radios and one medium-range radio, and an aiming circle inside the turret.  Later versions replace the radio teletype with a ruggedized laptop computer and one of the long-range radios with a data-capable version, and add more vision equipment and GLONASS. The BTR-60R-975 is similar, but for use by Tactical Air Control Parties (TACPs); the difference is primarily in the radios carried. The top of the vehicle has a collapsible AZI frame antenna and an extendible 10-meter radio mast.  The 1V19 carries manual plotting equipment and hand-held calculators in its early version, and still carries them as a backup in its later version. The rear of the vehicle is suitably modified for the role.

     The 1V19 is a fire direction center variant of the BTR-60PB.  It is equipped with two long-range radios, one medium-range radio, a radio teletype, and one short-range radio and the APPK computer system to compute and calculate artillery and mortar firing solutions.  It turret is of the same shape as the 1V18 and it has a hatch atop it, but it does not have the enhanced observation year or the laser rangefinder or designator. The original 1V19 had two long-range radios, one medium-range radio, a short-range radio, and a radio teletype, along with an extendible 10-meter antenna and a collapsible AZI frame antenna; later versions replace the radio teletype and the APPK with a more-capable computer and both of the long-range radios with data-capable versions, and add a GLONASS system and a hand-held laser rangefinder (to help place guns). The 1V19 has a 4kW generator on its roof. The later versions also delete the AZI antenna in favor of a more capable 10-meter antenna and whip antenna/radio combinations.

     As with other such vehicles, the 1V18 and 1V19 have many features in common with their parent vehicle. The 1V18 and 1V19 are powered by a pair of GAZ-49B 90-horsepower gasoline engines, each developing 90 horsepower.  One engine propels the second and fourth axles, and the second engine propels the first and third axles.  Each engine has its own gear box and clutch, and the driver has a dual manual transmission to contend with, making driving challenging to say the least.  The dual engine format means that if one engine goes out, the vehicle can still drive at half speed, but causes the driving difficulties as stated.  The transmission layout is also quite complicated and prone to breakdown.  The suspension, as stated, is 8x8 and of the off-road-type, and shock absorption is surprisingly effective.  The BTR-60 is fully amphibious with preparation (a trim vane must be erected in front from the driver’s compartment, bilge pumps turned on, and a waterjet turned on when the vehicle is floating; this takes four minutes). The turret’s traverse and elevation are manual, and thus are slower than on newer vehicles. The rear deck hatch is smaller than on the BTR-60PB, and the firing ports are deleted. There is a small hatch on the right side the hull for the gunner, and a full-sized hatch on the left side of the hull. In the front of the vehicle is a winch with a capacity of 4.5 tons.  The 1V18 and 1V19 have a collective NBC system. The driver and commander of the BTR-60 are in the front of the vehicle, behind bullet-resistant windshields. The positions have vision blocks to their fronts and on their outer sides.  The driver and commander also have small bullet-resistant windows to their right and left.  They have hatches over their positions which open to the front, with a space for a night vision block.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

1V18 (Early)

$211,621

G, A

550 kg

10.6 tons

5

7

Passive IR (D, C, Turret), Image Intensification (Turret)

Shielded

1V18 (Late)

$177,451

G, A

550 kg

10.6 tons

5

8

Passive IR (D, C, Turret), Image Intensification (Turret), Thermal Imaging (Turret)

Shielded

1V19 (Early)

$152,901

G, A

550 kg

10.6 tons

5

8

Passive IR (D, C)

Shielded

1V19 (Late)

$187,115

G, A

550 kg

10.6 tons

5

8

Passive IR (D, C)

Shielded

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

1V18/1V19

135/68

32/16/4

290

72

CiH

W(4)

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF5  HS2  HR2

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

1V18/1V19

None

None

KPV, PKT

500x14.5mm, 2000x7.62mm

 

Arzamas 1V152

     Notes: The 1V152 is called a “unified command vehicle;” of somewhat modular interior design, there are two versions of the 1V152, a FIST vehicle and an FDC vehicle.  Both carry the same designation, but have different equipment and different capabilities.  Both were introduced in the early-to-mid 1980s.  Both carry special equipment for their roles; though they may appear externally like a standard BTR-80 at first, closer examination will reveal their true natures.  So far, the 1V152 vehicles have not been exported outside of Russia and the former Soviet republics.  The 1V152 may be regarded in some sense as a more advanced 1V18/1V19, being based on the BTR-80 and using more advanced electronics and systems.

 

The 1V152 FIST

     The FIST version uses a wider and somewhat taller turret which not only houses the gunner/observer, but a large array of vision equipment, including extensive night vision equipment and day vision equipment along with a laser rangefinder.  The original 1V152 had a relatively simple control computer to tie together the inertial navigation system and the sensors and provide targeting information to artillery, mortar, or MRL batteries.  This computer does not compute fire solutions, though it can calculate corrections to observed fire.  The 1V152 FIST has three long-range radios (two of them data capable), one medium-range radio, and one short-range radio.  The 1V152 has an internal 4kW generator to power electronics and sensors when the vehicle’s engine is off.  The 1V152 has a 10-meter extendible antenna for extended-range communications and more advanced whip antennas.  The 1V152 also carries an assortment of maps and map markers, manual plotting devices, and hand-held calculators as a backup for the computers. The 1V152 carries not only a turret-mounted laser rangefinder, but also a hand-held laser rangefinder for use away from the vehicle; this laser rangefinder can be connected by a cable to the vehicle’s artillery fire control computer to feed information directly to it.  The vehicle also carries a hand-held image intensifier and several pairs of binoculars.

     Later versions increase the capabilities and reliability of the main computer to allow it to tie into the new GLONASS system or the inertial navigation system, and give recommendations on what round might be the most effective.  This computer can produce limited fire solutions, though they will not be as accurate as those produced by a dedicated FDC. The improved version has an advanced active/passive IR viewer with a range of 1500 meters in the passive mode and 3000 meters in the active mode; the 1V152 FIST has a small IR searchlight for use when the IR is in the active mode.  The improved version adds a thermal imager and a laser designator.

 

The 1V152 FDC

     The 1V152 FDC is the fire control component of the 1V152 system.  In its original iteration, the 1V152 FDC carries two data-capable long-range radios, a medium-range radio, and a short-range radio.  The 1V152 FDC has a limited computer able to compute fire solutions (though only two at a time), and use the data transmitted by FIST vehicles (manual input must be used).  The 1V152 FDC uses the same turret as the BTR-80 from which it derived, but that turret does not have the PKT coaxial machinegun.  On the roof is a 10-meter collapsible antenna, and several advanced whip antennas which are longer than normal whip antennas.  The original 1V152 FDC is equipped with an inertial navigation system with gyroscopic backup. It has a survey system to help lay out firing positions for the guns, mortars, or MRLs.  Newer 1V152 FDCs add a third long-range radio, a more capable computer able to calculate multiple fire solutions at once as well as fully and semi-automatically integrate information from FIST vehicles with much reduced user input.  The newer 1V152 FDC also adds a GLONASS system and a hand-held laser rangefinder to help determine proper firing positions for its guns, mortars, or MRLs; this laser rangefinder can be connected to the computer by a cable, and directly input its information.  The 1V152 also carries an assortment of manual aids to producing fire positions and determining firing positions, in case of equipment failure.  The 1V152 FDC carries an internal 4kW generator to power its electronics while the engine is turned off.

 

Common Features

     The BTR-80 and the two 1V152 vehicle have a number of common features. The 1V152 vehicles have bullet-resistant windshields and small windows to the sides which are very resistant to gunshots.  The commander and driver have vision blocks to the front and to their respective sides to supplement this, and each have a night vision block.  The driver’s controls are conventional and easy to use.  The turret is stepped up and, based on experiences in Afghanistan, the weapons are capable of very high elevation (almost straight up) and depression of -12 degrees. The new mantlet bulges outwards from the front of the turret, and the turret is a little taller, giving the gunner a better field of view.  The turret has electric traverse and elevation. The turret has a cluster of four smoke grenade launchers on either side of the turret.  Firing ports are deleted, and the roof hatches are smaller than on the BTR-80. The crew enter and exit through enlarged side hatches, which are clamshell hatches opening upwards and downwards. The 1V152s are powered by a single KamAZ-7403 260-horsepower turbocharged diesel engine, which, though the they have a manual transmission, greatly decreases the difficulty of the driver’s task as well as greatly simplifying the transmission and drive train, and increasing reliability. Suspension is 8x8 and of the off-road-type, with run-flat tires. The 1V152s are amphibious with preparation; when floating, a waterjet at the rear is turned on. The 1V152s have an NBC overpressure system with collective NBC backup, and radiological shielding. The 1V152s have a winch in the front with a capacity of 4.5 tons and 60 meters of cable.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

1V152 FIST (Early)

$352,902

D, A

900 kg

14 tons

4

10

Passive IR (D, C, Turret), Image Intensification (C, Turret)

Shielded

1V152 FIST (Late)

$279,882

D, A

900 kg

14 tons

4

10

Passive IR (D, C), Advanced Active/Passive IR (Turret), Image Intensification (C, Turret), Thermal Imaging (Turret)

Shielded

1V152 FDC (Early)

$194,793

D, A

900 kg

14 tons

4

10

Passive IR (D, C, Turret)

Shielded

1V152 FDC (Late)

$256,723

D, A

900 kg

14 tons

4

10

Passive IR (D, C, Turret)

Shielded

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

1V152 FIST/FDC

141/71

33/16/4

300

140

CiH

W(6)

TF4  TS4  TR4  HF5Sp  HS3  HR3*

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

1V152 FIST

+1

Basic

KPV, PKT

500x14.5mm, 2000x7.62mm

1V152 FDC

+1

Basic

KPV

500x14.5mm

*This vehicle has a floor AV of 4Sp.

 

Kharkov 1V12 System

     Notes:  This is a blanket designation referring to a family of vehicles that are used for artillery fire control purposes.  These vehicles are based upon the MT-LBu chassis, with a raised superstructure in the rear of the vehicle. There are four vehicles in the 1V12 system.  So far, the 1V12 system has not been exported, and the Russians and some former Soviet republics continue to use the system.

 

1V13 Battery Command/FDC Vehicle

     The 1V13 is the deputy battery commander’s vehicle, which is also used as the battery fire direction center (FDC); it has two long-range data-capable radios and one short-range vehicle.  Early versions also had a radio teletype, later replaced by the computer listed next. Later versions have a ruggedized laptop computer, which can communicate directly with battery fire control computers (if so equipped).  The computer can send and receive target coordinates, use internal maps to synthesize target coordinates (if enough information is known), and produce fire solutions particular to each gun, mortar, or MRL in the battery.  The 1V13 can receive visual information from the 1V14’s sensors if both the 1V14 and 1V13 are so equipped. The 1V13 can also survey battery locations, and locations to place each gun, and feed that information into the fire control computers of the guns (again, if so equipped; otherwise, it must be done manually).  The 1V13 also includes a hand-held laser rangefinder to manually input the gun locations into the 1V13’s computer. (Before the computer, the laser rangefinder was still available, but fire plotting had to be done mostly manually, with only a small computer of very limited capabilities.)  The early versions were equipped with inertial navigation, but newer versions replaced this with GLONASS (but retained the inertial navigation equipment as a backup).  The 1V13 has a manually-rotating commander’s cupola with a pintle-mounted weapon.

 

1V14 FISTV

     The 1V14 serves as the observation post for the battery commander; and is essentially a light FISTV.  The 1V14 has one long-range data-capable computer and three medium-range radios.  Early versions were equipped with a radio teletype, but this was replaced by a computer (not as comprehensive as the 1V13’s computer). It can also survey gun locations as a secondary feature.  The primary equipment, of course, is its observation gear – it has enhanced day and night vision gear, a laser rangefinder, and a laser designator, contained in a turret enlarged from that of the MT-LB and also armed with a light machinegun.  To facilitate long-range communication, the 1V14 has a 10-meter telescoping antenna which extends from the rear right roof.  The computer-equipped version can transmit its sensor information to higher headquarters, target coordinates, and preliminary fire solutions for the battery (not the individual guns). Early versions used inertial navigation, but later versions use GLONASS for navigation, with an inertial navigation backup. Later versions also upgraded the day and night vision, including a 1x/6x/20x day telescope, an advanced image intensifier which gives a +4 to observation, and an advanced FLIR with a range of 8 kilometers.

 

1V15 Command Vehicle

     The 1V15 is for use by the battalion commander; as such, it is more a command post than a strict artillery support vehicle, though it can function as an FDC in extremis.  It has one short-range, two medium range, and two long-range radios; the long-range radios are data-capable. The 1V15 has the same sort of 10-meter extendable antenna as the 1V14 to extend radio range. The 1V15 also originally included a radio teletype, but it was one of the first of the 1V12 series to receive a ruggedized laptop computer in the late 1980s, and a second one was added in the mid-1990s.  The 1V15 can also survey gun positions, has a laser rangefinder linked to the computers(s) to help establish firing positions for the guns, and some night vision gear.  These items are contained, along with a light machinegun, in a small, flattened turret similar to that of the 1V14. Initial navigation gear for the 1V15 was inertial navigation, but this has since been supplanted with GLONASS, with the inertial navigation gear being retained as a backup.

 

1V16 Battalion Command/FDC Vehicle

     The 1V16 is the deputy battalion commander’s vehicle that also serves as the battalion FDC; as such it can control the component batteries in the battalion (especially with later updates) and has as a part of its primary responsibility maintaining communications with the 1V14s in the battalion.  The 1V16 has two long-range data-capable radios and three medium-range radios, as well as a 10-meter extendable antenna.  Early versions also had a radio teletype, though this was later replaced by a ruggedized laptop computer which can not only receive orders and information, but also generate fire solutions.  (Backup manual plotting gear is carried, as well as items such as calculators.) The 1V16 can do gun surveys, and also has a set of meteorological instruments to measure local weather conditions that may affect the battalion’s guns and their fire.  Early 1V16’s had simple computers which helped do calculations and analyze the weather information.  As with the rest of this series, early 1V16s had inertial navigation equipment; this was later supplanted with GLONASS equipment, with the inertial navigation retained as a backup.  The 1V16 has the same commander’s cupola as on the 1V13.

 

Common Features

     Other than the mission-specific equipment and outfitting, the 1V12 series is similar to the MT-LBu. The 1V12 series do not have dedicated gunner’s positions, as on much of the MT-LBu-based vehicles; the commander mans a cupola or small turret, and the normal MT-LBu commander’s space is used for equipment storage instead. The driver is in the front left of the 1V12, with the commander’s former position to the right, and a small aisle between their positions that links to the rear of the vehicle. The driver has a hatch on the front face of the vehicle; the hatch in front of the former commander’s position is still there. These are not normally used for ingress and egress from the vehicle, as they open only part way (so that they are standing just slightly above straight out from the front face), and both the commander’s former position and driver’s position have normal hatches above their positions.  The front hatches are square, while those above their positions are oval.  (It should be noted that the normal commander’s seat is still there, so potentially a passenger could sit there.) Other than the cupola or a hatch on the turret roof, there are no hatches atop the 1V12. The engine is a YaMZ-238N 300-horsepower diesel which is actually an adapted heavy truck engine.  The engine gives the 1V12 a 5.5-ton towing capacity. The 1V12 has an automatic transmission, and the driver has conventional driving controls – a steering yoke, a gas pedal, and a brake pedal. Like other MT-LBu-series vehicles, the 1V12 is amphibious with a minimal amount of preparation (a trim vane must be erected and bilge pumps turned on), though on the 1V12 a crewmember must leave the vehicle to erect the trim vane instead of simply climbing out onto the front of the vehicle, so 7 minutes are required for preparation instead of five. The 1V12 variants are equipped with an NBC overpressure system.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

1V13 (Early)

$151,536

D, A

375 kg

16.5 tons

6

13

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

1V13 (Late)

$250,586

D, A

375 kg

16.5 tons

6

14

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

1V14 (Early)

$360,730

D, A

375 kg

16.5 tons

6

13

Passive IR (D, C), Image Intensification (C), Thermal Imaging (C)

Shielded

1V14 (Late)

$382,280

D, A

375 kg

16.5 tons

6

14

Passive IR (D, C), Advanced Image Intensification (C), Advanced FLIR (C)

Shielded

1V15 (Early)

$181,280

D, A

400 kg

16.4 tons

7

13

Passive IR (D, C), Image Intensification (C)

Shielded

1V15 (Mid)

$221,280

D, A

400 kg

16.4 tons

7

13

Passive IR (D, C), Image Intensification (C)

Shielded

1V15 (Late)

$332,330

D, A

400 kg

16.4 tons

7

14

Passive IR (D, C), Image Intensification (C)

Shielded

1V16 (Early)

$101,936

D, A

375 kg

16.5 tons

7

13

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

1V16 (Late)

$256,136

D, A

375 kg

16.5 tons

7

14

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

1V13/1V16

125/87

30/20/3

540

135

Stnd

T3

HF5  HS2  HR2

1V14

125/87

30/20/3

540

135

CiH

T3

TF4  TS2  TR2  HF5  HS2  HR2

1V15

126/88

30/20/3

540

135

CiH

T3

TF4  TS2  TR2  HF5  HS2  HR2

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

1V13/1V16

None

None

DShK (C)

500x12.7mm

1V14/1V15

None

None

PKT

1000x7.62mm

 

Volgograd JSC 1V118 Reostat/1V119 Spektr

     Notes:  These two vehicles are based on the BMD-1 chassis and have a number of features in common (other than the mechanics and hull of their base chassis). The Reostat and Spektr are used by Russian Airborne and Naval Infantry units, depending on the vehicle, as FDCs and FISTVs for their units’ mortars and artillery (whether self-propelled or ground-mounted).  So far, only the Russians use them.  Both are based on BMD-1 chassis, but have their turrets removed; externally, they look very much like BTR-Ds, but can be identified apart from the BTR-D by the lesser amount of roadwheels, greater amount of antennas, and generally smaller size.  Both have s simple commander’s cupola, but this cupola is not armed, and is primarily used for observation. Armament is restricted to one machinegun in the right bow; this weapon may be aimed and fired from the commander’s position or by the driver. Internally, they are far different from the BMD-1, however; the crampness of the interior is, if anything, exacerbated.

 

1V118 Reostat FISTV

     The 1V118 Reostat is the FISTV component of the system.  Much of the rear area is taken up by the sensor package, which elevates on a 10-meter extendible mast.  The Reostat’s sensor package is equipped with several day and night vision devices and telescopic sights.  It also has both a long-range laser rangefinder and long-range laser designator, both with a range of 8 kilometers; the commander and one of the crewmembers in the rear has controls to elevate and lower this mast and down/over links to their position from the sensor package. The commander has a special sight which has an aiming reticle for the laser designator and range information projected on it; one of the crewmembers in the rear also has this information downlinked to him, though the aiming reticle and range information is projected by his equipment instead of a special direct-view sight like the commander has.  Behind the sensor package is a combination ground surveillance/artillery/mortar counterbattery radar with a range of 14 kilometers; the sensor package is on the right and the radar on the left and slightly ahead of the sensor package/mast, so both can be used at once. When the sensor package is lowered, armored panels close over it; the radar dish does not lower and is always on the roof. Other equipment in the rear includes two long-range data-capable radios and a short-range radio.  Early versions had a small, low-capability computer to coordinate the sensor package and the radar and help the crewmembers digest the information for transmission to artillery or mortar batteries, and to send target coordinates.  This computer had little ability to actually come up with fire solutions, however.  Since the early 1990s, a full ruggedized computer was installed, along with two decent-sized LCD screens supplying target information, range, target status, and information from the sensor package and the radar.  This computer also has a number of maps stored in its memory, and can match them to the target coordinates and information. This computer has been upgraded a number of times since its introduction.  The Reostat was introduced with inertial navigation, but this was replaced by GLONASS in the mid-1990s and the inertial navigation unit became a backup.

 

1V119 Spektr FDC

     The 1V119 Spektr is the FDC component of the system.  This vehicle has two long-range data-capable computers, a medium-range radio, and short-range radio.  Initial versions had a computer capable of taking the information received from the Reostat and generating fire solutions from it, as well as giving the proper fire solution for each gun in the battery (assuming the battery location information given it by the crew is accurate).  The vehicle has a hand-held laser rangefinder, primarily to help it get proper coordinates for each gun or mortar. The Spektr also has the ability to survey gun and mortar sites. This early Spektr has inertial navigation. Later versions have a more comprehensive computer, capable of being connected by cable to the laser rangefinder and more fully use the information transmitted to it by the Reostat.  It quickly generates fire solutions for the battery, and can also keep up with the locations of enemy and friendly units (manual input), to help reduce friendly fire.  The later Spektr has a GLONASS navigation system, complete with computer storage for scores of maps, with the inertial navigation system being kept as a backup.

 

Common Features

     Features in common with the BMD-1 are as follows: The driver is in the center front hull, but the engine is in the rear.  One rear deck hatch is retained and is the entry and exit point for the crew in the hull. The left bow position of the BMD-1 hull is not used except for equipment storage.  The gunner’s seat of the right bow is also not present, and there is another small space for equipment storage instead.  Like the BMD-1, the bow machinegun of the Reostat and Spektr has a narrow field of fire – depending on the source, 20-30 degrees.  The hull side firing ports are deleted in the Reostat and Spektr.  The commander’s periscope is also deleted. The engine is 270-horsepower 5D-20 diesel engine, giving the Reostat and Spektr good power for its light weight; the transmission is manual. Armor protection is surprisingly good given the light weight; however, to save weight, the Soviets used magnesium alloy for the armor, which could go up like a Roman candle when hit.  The suspension is specially-designed for the Reostat and Spektr’s role; it is a variable-height hydropneumatic suspension that allows the Reostat and Spektr to “squat” when being carried in aircraft and being airdropped.  The roadwheels are likewise small, and the tracks are a mere 230mm wide.  A side-effect of this suspension appears to be a relatively decent ride.  The Reostat and Spektr is amphibious with a little preparation – a trim vane must be erected, bilge pumps turned on, and a periscope must be inserted into a socket and extended by the driver.  The bilge pump has a manual backup. This takes 10 minutes.  Propulsion in the water is by hydrojets. The hydrojets have shutters which allow for surprising maneuverability when swimming – the Reostat and Spektr can turn a complete circle in place while floating.  This is aided by the hydrojets’ being able to suck in water as well as expel it.

 

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

1V118 Reostat (Early)

$453,382

D, A

200 kg

13.4 tons

4

11

Passive IR (D, Mast), Image Intensification (Mast), Thermal Imaging (Mast), Radar (Roof)

Shielded

1V118 Reostat (Late)

$297,594

D, A

200 kg

13.4 tons

4

12

Passive IR (D, Mast), Image Intensification (Mast), Thermal Imaging (Mast), Radar (Roof)

Shielded

1V119 Spektr (Early)

$223,586

D, A

200 kg

13.3 tons

4

11

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

1V119 Spektr (Late)

$207,096

D, A

200 kg

13.3 tons

4

11

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

1V118 Reostat

147/103

36/22/9

300

113

CiH

T3

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF8  HS4  HR4*

1V119 Spektr

148/104

36/22/9

300

112

Trtd

T3

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF8  HS4  HR4*

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

1V118/1V119

None

None

PKT (Right Bow)

2000x7.62mm

*The “turret” refers to the radar dish or the mast-mounted sensor package (when extended).  As such, no crew casualties are possible when hitting the dish, and all such results are treated as electronics damage instead.  When firing at the Reostat, the chance of hitting the radar dish or mast is 50/50, unless the mast is not raised, in which case all such hits are on the radar dish.

 

KMZ PRP-3 Bal/PRP-4 Deyteriy

     Notes: The PRP-3 was the initial FIST version of the BMP-1, entering service in the early 1970s.  When first spotted by NATO, it was given the temporary NATO reporting designation of BMP M-1975, and some sources refer to it as the BMP-SON. In the Russian Army, the PRP-3 is normally attached to 122mm or 152mm-equipped artillery units, though it can spot for mortar or MRL units as well.  The PRP-3 served with Russian and some Warsaw Pact units into the late 1980s, by which time it was almost totally replaced by the PRP-4.  Numbers of them, however, are still kept in reserve in Russia.  Though I have not been able to substantiate it, some sources say that some PRP-3s are still used by Romania and Bulgaria.  Other than some Warsaw Pact country use, the PRP-3 was not exported.  The PRP-4 is a modernized version of the PRP-3, with virtually all electronic systems and sensor equipment upgraded.

 

The PRP-3

     The basic hull of the PRP-3 is virtually identical to the BMP-1’s, though all firing ports have been deleted and the hatch arrangement has been changed a great deal.  The driver is still on the right front side and the commander is in the turret with a hatch above him, but on the hull roof, there are only two small hatches just behind the turret.  The turret has a second hatch for another observer; the turret is a two-man turret. The rear doors remain.  One of the largest changes and recognition features are in the turret; the turret is wider than the BMP-1’s and is armed with only a single machinegun.  This turret has a number of projections and boxes on it, which are the heads for the PRP-3’s sensors and telescopic day and night vision equipment.  The passive IR scope on the PRP-3 has somewhat extended range – it has a 500-meter base range.  The turret’s image intensifier likewise is a bit more effective than most image intensifiers, adding 3 to the user’s observation. (The driver’s image intensifier is standard.)  Most of the night vision equipment is in a large box with a hinged cover on the right side. The machinegun is aimed and fired using of these boxes on the roof of the turret; it is a periscopic vision block with an aiming reticle on it.  The aiming reticle includes a small ballistic computer. Other boxes on the turret include a laser rangefinder and a separate commander’s telescopic scope and IR scope.  The PRP-3 has an inertial navigation system, with a gyro course indicator and gyrocompass as a backup. The PRP-3 has three smoke grenade launchers on each side of the turret, and 90mm folding illumination shell launcher, for which 20 rounds are carried; the smoke grenade launchers are on either side of the turret, and the illumination shell launcher is just behind the turret.

     Though some of the radios are in the turret, they are generally routed through the equipment of the two men in the back of the vehicle.  This includes one long-range radio, one medium-range radio, and one short-range radio.  The PRP-3 has a 10-meter extendible antenna to extend radio range. They also have access to a simple computer to help calculate ranging and use information from the inertial navigation equipment and gyrocompass, though it has no capability to calculate fire solutions.  The troops in the rear also have manual plotting gear, maps, and hand-held calculators.  The crew in the rear control perhaps the most obvious of the recognition features: a combination ground surveillance and mortar/artillery counterbattery radar called “Small Fred” by NATO and the 1RL126 by Russia.  The antenna folds flat against the vehicle when not in use.  The Small Fred has a detection range of 20 kilometers, and can track large moving objects such as vehicles at 10 kilometers or personnel at 1 kilometer. (Sources are contradictory as to whether the Small Fred operates in the J-band or K-band.)

 

The PRP-4

     The PRP-4 is a development of the PRP-3, essentially a PRP-3 with updated sensors, vision devices, and electronics.  The PRP-4 retains inertial navigation with a gyroscopic backup/supplement, though the system is updated, more accurate, and more compact.  Both the fire direction computer and the ballistic computer are likewise updated and are more compact and more reliable.  The night vision has been improved – the passive IR has a base range of 1500 meters in passive mode or a range of 3000 meters when used in the active mode, and the image intensifier (except for the driver’s) adds 4 to the user’s observation.  The PRP-4 has a small IR searchlight for use in conjunction with the IR viewer when it is in the active mode. The PRP-4 has two large shuttered boxes, one on each side of the turret; the one on the left side houses the thermal imager and the laser rangefinder, and the one on the right houses the passive IR, image intensifier, and day vision equipment.  On the turret roof on the left side is the head for the laser rangefinder, which is likewise improved in reliability and more compact.  The PRP-4 also carries a hand-held laser rangefinder for use when away from the vehicle, and this can be attached by a cable to the vehicle’s computer.  The commander’s rotating periscopic vision block has been given its own night vision device, which is a standard passive IR device and not the enhanced one which is on the side of the turret. The radar has been replaced with the more advanced 1RL133 (“Tall Mike”) radar, which has a detection range of 25 kilometers, and a tracking range of 12 kilometers against vehicles and 2 kilometers against personnel.  It can also track low-flying helicopters (those flying at not more 3000 meters) at a range of 7 kilometers.  As the Tall Mike is more compact and technology had advanced, the radar dish can be folded and pulled into the vehicle under armored doors when it is not in use.  The PRP-4 has one data-capable long-range radio, one other long-range radio, one medium-range radio, and one short-range radio.  The computer on the PRP-4 is more capable and gives results quicker, as well as able to take data directly from the vehicle’s sensors and couple it with the inertial navigation and mapping equipment.

     The PRP-4M and PRP-4MU have much of the same improvements as the improved BMP-1 (Ob’yekt 765Sp2), including incremental reliability improvements to the electronics, and suspension. The PRP-4M and PRP-MU have a higher hull and changes to nose section for better flotation that increased length by 200mm, making the PRP-4M and MU a better swimming platform.  The exhaust port behind the turret was fitted with an extendible snorkel for amphibious operations and deep fording.  A small air intake to the left of and in front of the driver was removed, again to increase swimming integrity. Improvements were made to the NBC (overpressure and backup collective) system and engine to improve reliability.  The PRP-MU also has an increased-capability computer, which can do fire solutions if required, and adds a laser designator. For game purposes, the PRP-4M is identical to the PRP-4, except that players will find that many of the electronic parts are different when their characters attempt to fix the electronics; the PRP-4MU is a little different in game terms as listed below.

 

Common Features

     The PRP-3 and PRP-4 have a UTD-20 300-horsepower diesel engine is mounted in the front to the right of the driver, and is coupled to a manual transmission.  The BMP-1’s engine has a limited multi-fuel capability – it can burn almost any grade of diesel fuel, and it can also burn kerosene. The PRP-3 and PRP-4 may lay a thick, oily smoke screen by injecting diesel fuel into its exhaust. The ground pressure is relatively low, and the PRP-3 and PRP-4 can cross fairly deep snow without getting bogged down; it can also traverse some swampy terrain with a reasonable chance of success.  The PRP-3 and PRP-4 are also amphibious with minimal preparation; a trim vane must be erected at the front and bilge pumps turned on.  The hull is airtight once the rear doors are closed, and buoyancy is assisted by hollow roadwheels and roadwheel arms with air chambers in them.  The amphibious capability is rather limited – a current as little as 1.2 meters per second (4.3 kilometers per hour) can swamp a PRP-3 or PRP-4. Cross-country travel, however, is unpleasant for the crew and passengers, particularly on a long trip or at high speeds, as even on the improved versions, the shock absorbers suck and the ride is bouncy, sometimes to the point of being violently bouncy.  As with the BMP-1, crews often fill the PRP-3’s and PRP-4’s rear tanks with sand or water to help address the vulnerabilities of the vehicle to rear-quarter shots, and add on ad hoc appliqué armor.

 

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

PRP-3

$948,268

D, A

425 kg

13.2 tons

5

10

Enhanced Passive IR (Turret), Image Intensification (D), Enhanced Image Intensification (Turret), Radar

Shielded

PRP-4

$860,974

D, A

425 kg

13.2 tons

5

10

Enhanced Active/Passive IR (Turret), Image Intensification (D), Enhanced Image Intensification (Turret), Thermal Imaging (Turret) Radar

Shielded

PRP-4MU

$652,389

G, A

425 kg

13.2 tons

5

10

Enhanced Active/Passive IR (Turret), Image Intensification (D), Enhanced Image Intensification (Turret), Thermal Imaging (Turret) Radar

Shielded

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

PRP-3/PRP-4

148/104

36/22/4

462

132

Trtd*

T3

TF10  TS6  TR6  HF8  HS4  HR4*

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

PRP-3/PRP-4

+1

Basic

PKT

2000x7.62mm

*On the PRP-3 and the PRP-4 (if the dish is deployed), a “Turret” hit is 25% likely to hit the radar dish instead.  If so, use the Crew-in-Hull tables to find the vehicle damage, and any result which indicates crew casualties results in electronics damage instead.  The radar dish is considered to have an all-around AV of 2 for this purpose. If the dish is not deployed, use the standard damage table for a turreted vehicle.